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1. Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution

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Introduction

Laboratory Report Name: Class: Class number: Date: 14th September, 2009 Experiment number: 001 Laboratory partner: Subject: Chemistry Experiments: 1. Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution 2. Determination of the concentration of commercial colourless vinegar Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid Objective: To determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide. As the molarity of the sodium hydroxide is unknown, in order to standardize it, the concentration of the acid has to be known. Result: Titration Trial 1 2 3 4 Initial burette reading() 18.33 8.05 7.52 8.21 Final burette reading() 45.48 36.25 35.79 36.82 Volume of sodium hydroxide solution used() 27.15(rejected) 28.20 28.27 28.61 Average volume of sodium hydroxide solution used() ...read more.

Middle

As the compositions of vinegar in different brands are different, the highest concentration of ethanoic acid in the vinegar was said to be the best to buy. Result: Titration Trial 1 2 3 4 Initial burette reading() 5.99 9.28 8.50 7.05 Final burette reading() 20.32 26.22 25.17 23.86 Volume of sodium hydroxide solution used() 14.33(rejected) 16.94 16.67 16.80 Average volume of sodium hydroxide solution used() 16.81 Treatment for result: * Concentration of ethanoic acid in the commercial vinegar(ShanTou) Number of mole of sodium hydroxide = 0.045�0.01681 = 7.56� ?Number of mole of ethanoic acid = 7.56� Molarity of ethanoic acid = 7.56�0.001 = 0.756M * Determine which brand is the "best buy" Brand Lee Kam Kee Heinz Shantou Molarity of ethanoic acid 0.72M 0.871M 0.756M Volume of vinegar 473ml 473ml 272ml ...read more.

Conclusion

Primary standard is a substance which is so stable in the air that it can become a standard in standardizing other substances, for example, ethanedioic acid and anhydrous sodium carbonate. Secondary standard is a solution that no actual experiment to determine its concentration was taken out. Its molarity is estimated by calculation. What requirements must be fulfilled for a chemical to be used as a primary standard in a titration experiment? Why is sodium hydroxide not a good primary standard? A primary standard should be very stable, would not absorb moisture from the air and has a high molar mass. Sodium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide and water in the air, which makes it cannot be weighed accurately. What apparatus should we use to measure the following volumes of solutions? A. 250.0 250 volumetric flask B. 25.00 25 pipette C. 1.00 1 pipette D. 20 measuring cylinder ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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