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A comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis

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Introduction

A comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis Meiosis has many similarities to mitosis. However, there are major differences that it is essential to note. Mitosis produces two daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell and to each other. Meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells which differ genetically not only from the parent cell but from each other. Meiosis II is virtually identical in mechanism to mitosis, separating sister chromatids. Some errors are made in meiosis, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in the gametes and in diploid individuals resulting from those gametes. Mitosis helps in growth and body repair. Meiosis however, helps in sexual reproduction and regulation of chromosome number in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms. Meiosis cell division produces four offspring sex cells, each with its own unique, reshuffled selection of genes with only half the number of chromosomes - the haploid number. ...read more.

Middle

During Prophase (prophase I in meiosis I and just regular prophase in mitosis) synapsis (pairing of homologues) occurs to form the bivalent and crossing over occurs, resulting in the formation of chiasmata. In mitosis, neither synapse nor crossing over occurs. During metaphase in meiosis I, bivalents align on the metaphase plate. In mitosis however, individual chromosomes align on the metaphase plate. In mitosis, the number of chromosomes present in the mother cell is maintained in both the daughter cells; therefore it can be called an equational division. In meiosis, the diploid number of chromosomes is reduced to a haploid in each daughter cell, and is therefore called a reduction division. Original characteristics of the chromosomes are maintained by mitosis, but in meiosis they are altered by the crossing over causing recombination genes. ...read more.

Conclusion

6. Does not involve either pairing of homologous chromosomes or crossing over. 6. Pairing of homologous chromosomes and crossing over occur during Prophase-I. 7. Two daughter cells are formed. 7. Four daughter cells are formed. 8. Number of chromosomes present in the mother cell is maintained in both the daughter cells. Therefore it is an equational division. 8. Diploid number of chromosomes is reduced to haploid in each daughter cell. Therefore it is a reduction division. 9. Original characters of the chromosomes are maintained in the daughter cells. 9. Chromosomal characters are altered due to "crossing over" causing recombination of genes. 10. Daughter cells are similar to each other and also to the original mother cell. 10. Daughter cells differ from each other as well as from the original mother cell. 11. Helps in growth and body repairs. 11. Helps in the sexual reproduction and regulation of chromosome number in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organism. ...read more.

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