• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Acid Rain.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry coursework-Acid Rain. Planning. Acid Rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. When fossil fuels are burned they release mostly CO2, but they also release two harmful gases, sulphur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides. The sulphur dioxide, SO2, comes from the sulphur impurities in the fossil fuels. However, the nitrogen oxides are created from a reaction between the nitrogen and the oxygen in the air, caused by the heat of the burning. When these gases mix with clouds they form dilute sulphuric acid and dilute nitric acid. This then falls as acid rain. Cars and power stations are the main causes of Acid Rain. Acid Rain has effects on plants, soil and even buildings. The acid reacts with the limestone and then the limestone begins to erode. From previous knowledge, I know that limestone has the chemical formula CaCO3. Limestone, chalk and marble are all calcium carbonate. When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate (such as calcium carbonate) the fizzing shows that a gas is produced. That gas is carbon dioxide, CO2. Adding hydrochloric acid to a rock sample is one of the tests for a carbonate rock, like marble, chalk or limestone. ...read more.

Middle

Volume (cm�) 10 4 20 5 30 6 40 9 50 12 60 15 70 18 80 21 90 24 10 27 110 31 120 34 130 37 140 40 150 44 160 47 170 50 180 52 2 m with chip 2 m with powder Mass of chip = 1.0g Mass of powder = 1.0g Volume of acid = 30cm� Volume of acid = 30cm� Time (s) Volume (cm�) 10 5 20 9 30 13 40 16 50 22 60 26 70 33 80 36 90 46 10 46 110 46 120 51 130 54 140 57 150 57 160 57 170 57 180 57 Time (s) Volume (cm�) 10 0-60 20 " 30 " 40 " 50 " 60 " 70 " 80 " 90 " 10 " 110 " 120 " 130 " 140 " 150 " 160 " 170 " 180 " Conclusion. After completing my experiment my results show me that as the concentration of the acid is increased, the reaction takes place faster and more gas is produced in a shorter space of time. Due to this I found that the 2M hydrochloric acid (the strongest concentration of acid I used) ...read more.

Conclusion

To avoid this from happening a test tube containing the calcium carbonate should be placed inside a beaker containing the hydrochloric acid. They must not be touching, as the reaction would then start. Then the gas syringe will be connected to the beaker. When the reaction is ready to start, the beaker is knocked so that the test tube falls over, consequently causing the reaction to take place as the acid and carbonate would mix. Then when the initial gas is produced it will all be 'caught' as the gas syringe is already in place. The surface area of the calcium carbonate should also have been kept equal. The same number of equally weighted chips should have been used. E.g. all 1g chips. This way the reaction is fair and accurate, as a large surface area will cause the reaction to take place faster. Keeping all the surface areas the same would have kept the experiment fair. However to do this would have taken a long time and we only had a limited amount of time. Another way of keeping the temperature the same would have been to do the experiment in a water bath. This would have allowed us to do the experiment over a few days as well. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    -The lid covering the plastic cups cannot prevent heat loss efficiently. -Heat capacities of plastic cups and thermometer were ignored. -The samples were not pure calcium and pure calcium carbonate due to air oxidation and reaction with moisture in air.

  2. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    135 ml 137 ml 0.5 Molar 7 143 ml 140 ml 138 ml 140 ml 0.5 Molar 8 145 ml 142 ml 140 ml 142 ml 0.5 Molar 9 145 ml 145 ml 141 ml 144 ml 0.5 Molar 10 145 ml 145 ml 141 ml 144 ml Concentration Of

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    Pour the contents of beaker X into beaker Y and start the stop-watch 4. Mix the solutions by pouring the mixture back into beaker X and then back into beaker Y 5. When the pink colour has disappeared, stop the stop-watch and record the time in the results table, as shown below 6.

  2. The Determination of rate equation

    /S Average /s Rate/S-1 Exp1 Exp2 Exp3 10.00 4.00 41.00 0.03 182.01 180.5 179.01 180.36 5.54x10-03 10.00 8.00 37.00 0.08 68.00 70.01 72.05 70.02 14.3 x10-03 10.00 12.00 33.00 0.14 44.16 43.14 45.13 44.13 22.7 x10-03 10.00 16.00 29.00 0.21 29.02 30.07 32.38 30.49 32.8 x10-03 10.00 20.00 25.00 0.30

  1. Free essay

    Experiment. Is the order of reaction affected if the acid is monoprotic or diprotic?

    The order of reaction may vary in my experiment because I am using a monoprotic acid and a diprotic acid, and therefore it may be predicted by looking at the chemical equations for the reactions that the sulphuric acid would have a second order reaction (because it has 2 H+ ions)

  2. detremining the rate equation

    2.00 5 64.12 15.60 20 5 1.60 5 69.04 14.50 15 10 1.20 5 74.27 13.50 10 15 0.80 5 77.42 12.90 5 20 0.40 5 94.11 10.60 From these results I'm going to draw graph for rate against concentration.

  1. Acids and Bases in the World - acid rain, chlorine in pools and cleaning ...

    Many things make the oven dirty however the majority of it is fats and oils 2. Generally oven cleaners are basic in pH, this is because they react with the fats and oils. This term is also described as saphonification 3.

  2. Individual investigation - Reaction to be studied Rate of reaction between propanone and ...

    Titre volume / cm3 Titre volume (repeat) / cm3 Average Titre/ cm3 3.02 24.2 23.8 24 6.02 21 21.8 21.4 9.02 20.3 19.9 20.1 12.04 18.9 18.5 18.7 15.04 16.3 17.1 16.7 18.03 17 17.2 17.1 21.04 14.2 13.8 14 24 13.4 13.8 13.6 As shown in the calculation, I

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work