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Acid Rain.

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Introduction

Chemistry coursework-Acid Rain. Planning. Acid Rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. When fossil fuels are burned they release mostly CO2, but they also release two harmful gases, sulphur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides. The sulphur dioxide, SO2, comes from the sulphur impurities in the fossil fuels. However, the nitrogen oxides are created from a reaction between the nitrogen and the oxygen in the air, caused by the heat of the burning. When these gases mix with clouds they form dilute sulphuric acid and dilute nitric acid. This then falls as acid rain. Cars and power stations are the main causes of Acid Rain. Acid Rain has effects on plants, soil and even buildings. The acid reacts with the limestone and then the limestone begins to erode. From previous knowledge, I know that limestone has the chemical formula CaCO3. Limestone, chalk and marble are all calcium carbonate. When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate (such as calcium carbonate) the fizzing shows that a gas is produced. That gas is carbon dioxide, CO2. Adding hydrochloric acid to a rock sample is one of the tests for a carbonate rock, like marble, chalk or limestone. ...read more.

Middle

Volume (cm�) 10 4 20 5 30 6 40 9 50 12 60 15 70 18 80 21 90 24 10 27 110 31 120 34 130 37 140 40 150 44 160 47 170 50 180 52 2 m with chip 2 m with powder Mass of chip = 1.0g Mass of powder = 1.0g Volume of acid = 30cm� Volume of acid = 30cm� Time (s) Volume (cm�) 10 5 20 9 30 13 40 16 50 22 60 26 70 33 80 36 90 46 10 46 110 46 120 51 130 54 140 57 150 57 160 57 170 57 180 57 Time (s) Volume (cm�) 10 0-60 20 " 30 " 40 " 50 " 60 " 70 " 80 " 90 " 10 " 110 " 120 " 130 " 140 " 150 " 160 " 170 " 180 " Conclusion. After completing my experiment my results show me that as the concentration of the acid is increased, the reaction takes place faster and more gas is produced in a shorter space of time. Due to this I found that the 2M hydrochloric acid (the strongest concentration of acid I used) ...read more.

Conclusion

To avoid this from happening a test tube containing the calcium carbonate should be placed inside a beaker containing the hydrochloric acid. They must not be touching, as the reaction would then start. Then the gas syringe will be connected to the beaker. When the reaction is ready to start, the beaker is knocked so that the test tube falls over, consequently causing the reaction to take place as the acid and carbonate would mix. Then when the initial gas is produced it will all be 'caught' as the gas syringe is already in place. The surface area of the calcium carbonate should also have been kept equal. The same number of equally weighted chips should have been used. E.g. all 1g chips. This way the reaction is fair and accurate, as a large surface area will cause the reaction to take place faster. Keeping all the surface areas the same would have kept the experiment fair. However to do this would have taken a long time and we only had a limited amount of time. Another way of keeping the temperature the same would have been to do the experiment in a water bath. This would have allowed us to do the experiment over a few days as well. ...read more.

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