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Acids and Bases in the World - acid rain, chlorine in pools and cleaning products.

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Introduction

´╗┐Acids and Bases in the World Acid Rain 1. Cause 1. Caused by a chemical compound such as sulphur dioxide or nitrogen oxides being released into the air 2. These substances can rise very high in the atmosphere where they react with water, oxygen and other chemicals forming acidic pollutants 3. Are able to dissolve very easily in water and carried far by wind, becoming part of the rain, sleet, snow and fog 1. The source of the release of these chemical compounds occurs from the burning of fossil fuels and pollutants from auto mobiles and factories, mainly humans cause this pollution 2. Some natural pollution however in balance with the Earth so there isn't a huge rise in acidic level, humans change this and make it higher 1. Equations to show the formation of acidic pollutants 1. Sulphur Dioxide + Water forming sulphurous acid SO2(g) + H2O(l) ? H2SO3(aq) 1. Sulphur Dioxide oxidises to Sulphur trioxide 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ? 2SO3(g) 1. Sulphur Trioxide + Water forming sulphuric acid SO3(g) + H2O(l) ? H2SO4(aq) 1. Nitrogen oxides + Water form nitrous acid and nitric acid 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) ? HNO2(aq) + HNO3(aq) 1. Consequences on environment 1. Acid rain has many consequences on the environment, impacting on surface waters, aquatic animals, soils, forest and other vegetation, human health effects and even effects on buildings 1. ...read more.

Middle

Bleach is such a great disinfectant because of its ability to oxidise, when sodium chlorite comes in contact with germs etc. It oxidises the molecules, killing them 2. The hypochlorous acid that is also formed from this reaction causes certain proteins to build up in bacteria making their cells unable to function B 1. As it is described earlier bleach is very useful in many areas because of its ability to one disinfect and sanitise and two to remove colour from what it reacts with 2. By soaking cutlery in bleach, we are able to get the discolouration in any of the material present due to the oxidisation powers of bleach breaking the bonds that make up the chromosphere thereby making the material unable to absorb light or absorb light that is not on a visible spectrum 3. The bleach will also provide some disinfectant properties as described in the previous question 4. Rinsing the cutlery with water then will dilute any remaining bleach washing it away from the cutlery 5. Soaking the cutlery in vinegar is due to the fact that vinegar is acidic, because of this it can dissolve mineral deposits from smooth surfaces it is also effective against bacteria and mould providing that extra sanitisation with a clean and shiny finish to the cutlery. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would be due to the acid reacting with the teeth and the corrosive properties of an acid may also have had a part in reducing the mass of the teeth J) 1. In any experiment unless using equipment that can measure out quantities in exact amounts there is likely to be human error 2. These errors would include the actual amount of 0.01M HCl poured in may not have been an exact 100mL 3. As with the amount of water would not have been exactly 0.5309573455L 4. These errors would mean that the pH of the acid would not have been exactly 2.8 therefore changing the accuracy of the results 5. Another human error possibility is the pH of coke, as researched before cokes pH can actually vary per can 1. A way to improve the validity of the results would be to cover the test tubes with test tube stoppers to ensure no contamination occurs 2. To control the type of tooth used, ensuring they're all the same tooth (canine, molar, incisor etc.) 3. To control the temperature of the acid so as to not change the accuracy of the results 4. To ensure the conditions of the teeth are all the same, e.g. they all have fillings or none of them have fillings ...read more.

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