• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a reservoir of potential chemical energy and an energy currency, mediating most energy coupling in cells.

Extracts from this document...


Write an essay about ATP. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a reservoir of potential chemical energy and an energy currency, mediating most energy coupling in cells. ATP and its derivatives are involved heavily in metabolism, however they have other functions such as being allosteric inhibitors and effectors, as well in hormonal response( cyclic AMP). ATP was first isolated from mammalian muscle; it has since been shown to occur in all types of cell, at concentrations varying between 0.5 and 2.5 mg/cm3 . ATP plays such an important role in an organism that without its existence, systems would probably fail. Thus its continuous production is necessary in order to main survival. The structure of ATP is linked very closely to its function, specifically its triphosphate tail, which is the chemical equivalent of a loaded spring. Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleotide consisting of an organic base (adenine), a five carbon sugar (ribose) and a chain sequence of three phosphate groups linked together. The adenosine part of the molecule acts like a 'handle"-it has a shape which can be recognized by highly specific enzymes. When only one phosphoryl group is added to the ribose sugar and base adenine, the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is formed; adding a second phosphoyrl group makes adenosine diphosphate (ADP); and adding a third makes ATP. ...read more.


ATP hydrolysis is favoured i.e. it has a strong tendency to transfer its terminal phosphoryl group in the presence of an appropriate catalyst(ATPase), a reaction associated with the release of 30.5 kj mol-1 of ATP. There are many reasons for this tendency: firstly, the repulsion between the four negative charges in ATP4- is reduced because two negative charges are removed with phosphate; secondly, the H+ ion which is released when ATP is hydrolysed reacts with the OH- ions to form water- this is a highly favoured reaction. Also the charge distribution on ADP +Pi is more stable than that on ATP. ATP is the central molecule in metabolism. ATP is important not just for driving biosynthetic reactions such as nitrogen fixation and bioluminescence; it is also used as a source of energy for virtually all kinds of movements, including small motions of cellular structures, locomotion of single cells and muscle contraction, where ATP hydrolysis changes the position of the myosin 'head" relative to actin, It also supplies energy for the transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes and so it underlies the whole activity of the nervous system. Active transport systems are driven by the phosphorylation of membrane-bound proteins. In urea synthesis, ATP hydrolysis drives the ornithine cycle which removes toxic ammonia. ...read more.


The enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and Pi occurs in the membrane. The hydrogen ions are able to pass back across the membrane, through a channel in the ATPase. Flow of hydrogen ions through this channel causes reversal of ATP hydrolysis. Thus although an organism at work uses ATP continuously, ATP is a renewable resource that can be regenerated by the addition of phosphate to ADP. This ATP cycle moves at an astonishing pace. For example, a working muscle cell recycles its entire pool of ATP about once each minute. That turnover represents 10 million molecules of ATP consumed and regenerated per second per cell. In conclusion, the production of ATP can never cease, for energy is needed to drive cellular work, be it chemical, mechanical or transport since the immediate source of energy that powers cellular work is ATP. Cellular reactions, without the free energy to kick start, will take place too slowly to sustain life. It is such an important molecule that no other molecule can replace its functions in an organism. Done by : Stephanie Ow Class: 2S03A Group 1 Comments: this is a well written essay which covers the important details about ATP from its structure, function and its other non energy coupling roles. In the actual essay it would be good to include a diagram of ATP and the coupling to illustrate your point but you did give a good written description. Well done. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to ...

    4 star(s)

    Natural gas is usually found near petroleum underground. The natural gas is pumped from below ground and sent in large pipelines like the ones to the right. Natural gas usually has no odour and you can't see it. Before it is sent to the pipelines and storage tanks, it is mixed with a chemical that gives a strong odour.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    'An investigation into the ability of two strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ...

    4 star(s)

    To aid in the filling process, and reduce the potential risk of spilling, place a funnel in the top of the burette. Arrange five beakers, four of which are for a 25cm3 sample of one of each of the four baking yeast containing sugar solutions, and one for the baking yeast control.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate.

    3 star(s)

    In aerobic respiration only the reduced NAD generated here enters a mitochondrion and goes into the electron transport chair where it is used to generate 6 molecules of ATP. Hence, the net ATP produced from glycolysis are 8 molecules of ATP.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the role of energy in the body and the physiology of three named ...

    3 star(s)

    and ADP gets phosphorylated (an extra phosphate gets added) to form ATP (hence phosphorylation)." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_systems) Types of energy: * Chemical * Radiant * Sound * Nuclear * Electro-magnet The role of energy Our body requires energy for all functions, movement, reproduction and respiration.

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    of the 5% bile salts solution until it is approximately 30cm3 3. Refill the beaker labelled distilled water with some more distilled water until it is approximately 90cm3 4. Using the same 20cm3 suck into the pipette 20cm3 of the 5% bile salts solution and then pour it into the volumetric flask 5.

  2. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    The most unreliable source is probably source 8 and 13 due to it being part of Wikipedia. The reason for this is that Wikipedia is a free encyclopaedia which is maintained by the general public and anyone who has knowledge about a certain subject can edit the entries.

  1. Weed study. Dandelions - descrption and characteristics. Investigation to dandelion distribution.

    However, minor adaptations were made. Last year I used 'RANDOM SAMPLING'. I felt that this would be the fairest possible way to attain accurate results. The reason for this is because I felt that it would not be biased. If I had attained biased results my results would not be accurate and reliable.

  2. Testing the Physical and Chemical properties of soils .

    The Lockyer valleys production area lies on flat, slightly sloped and undulating soils and the area are sometimes subject to irregular flooding. The Lockyer valley and surrounding areas also occupy black soils which are dark grey to black cracking clays that are highly fertile and contain high percentages of humus; around 10%-20%.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work