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Advancements in Cloning

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Cloning A clone is an organism or a group of organism that has come from another organism through asexual reproduction; this can be applied to cells as well as organisms. Most of the time the members of a clone are genetically identical, however sometimes mutations may occur when replicating the DNA. Clones don't always have to be artificially produced, an example of naturally occurring clones are identical twins, they have been produced from the division of a fertilised egg. Also prokaryotic cells reproduce asexually as well as other simple organisms such as algae and some yeasts and some larger, more complex organisms such as dandelions and aspen trees. Currently scientists are able to isolate a single gene from one organism and grow it in another organism from a different species. Most of the time the species used as the recipient is able to produce asexually (for example bacterium). This mean that it is possible to produce large numbers of cloned cells that all contain the desired gene. These copies can be used medical or commercial purposes as it would be possible to create large amounts of the gene that produces insulin or growth hormones. ...read more.


Two embryos are given to each surrogate mother; any left over are then frozen. By doing this the reproductive rate is increased, the chosen cow is never put at risk through pregnancy and the embryos can be sexed and checked for genetic diseases. It has been found that an embryo in the early stages of development can be removed, split and then the separate parts are then placed in a surrogate uterus, where they will develop further into identical twins. A variety of mammals, such as mice and sheep, have been produced by this method, known as embryo splitting. However more recently it has been discovered that a whole can be taken from a cell and injected into a fertilised egg that has already had it's nucleus removed. When the egg divides it also divides the nucleus, and so these nuclei can, in turn, be injected into eggs. After this has been repeated a few times, the nuclei may then be able to develop into organisms genetically identical to the organism that the original nucleus was taken. ...read more.


They became quiescent. They then removed the nucleus of from an oocyte (from a Scottish Blackface ewe, it has a black face) and injected the nucleus from a quiescent mammary cell (taken from a Finn Dorset, it is a white breed). By using small electric pulses they fused the nucleus with the cytoplasm, the pluses also made the cell begin to divide. This new cell was placed in a surrogate mother. After repeating the process 276 times, Dolly was born. She is a healthy Finn Dorset, which shows that Dolly was a clone, as the Backface ewe wouldn't have been able to produce a white sheep no matter who was the father. They also carried out DNA tests to be sure. However Dolly doesn't possess all the genetic characteristics of the Finn Dorset sheep from which they took the nucleus. This is because there are a few genes in the mitochondria in the cytoplasm, which were supplied by the donor egg from the original Scottish Blackface ewe. This huge progress in cloning has led to the possibilities of genetically changing animals to product organs for transplant into humans. Ava Alamdari 1 ...read more.

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