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All flesh is grass.

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All flesh is grass "All flesh is grass" is a quote from the book of Kings in the bible. Initially it is difficult to see how this relates to biology. However it is possible to relate the two, especially when considering the relationship between flesh and grass, or plant and animal life. It is necessary to consider exactly what is meant by "grass" and "flesh". All grasses are plants, and as such conform to specific biological criteria that define the difference between plant life and animal life e.g. the ultrastructure of their cells, respiration and photosynthesis. Flesh is defined as soft muscular tissue found in animals. It is crucial to man's existence that the relationship between the earth and human life is examined, both the bible and biology attempt to understand how such a delicate balance of life on earth is maintained. Grasses are one of the most plentiful biological structures found on earth, with cellulose being the most abundant biological molecule. All grasses are essential sources of food for humans and animals alike. They offer important sources of vitamins and minerals. Key to the relationship between grass and flesh is that plants also contain the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. These five elements are essential in the production of protein within animals and thus vital to the development of flesh. Humans, like all mammals, employ holozoic nutrition to obtain nutrients from their food. ...read more.


Tissue fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body. The process of forming tissue fluid is similar to the process in the Bowman's capsule in the kidney; it is formed through ultra-filtration. At the arteriolar end of the capillary the blood pressure is approximately 40mm Hg, at this pressure water is forced out of the capillary. However, this is opposed by the osmotic effect of the plasma proteins, which is approximately 25mm Hg. As a result the outward force is the difference, about 15mm Hg. At the venular end of the capillary the blood pressure has dropped to about 10mm Hg, but the osmotic pressure has remained at 25mm Hg. Therefore a net inward of pressure of 15 mm Hg is created. This draws water back into the capillaries from the tissue fluid by osmosis. This process means that new tissue fluid is always being formed at the arteriolar end of the capillary, carrying glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, minerals, dissolved gases and vitamins. Also waste from the cells is taken away at the venular end of the capillary. Some tissue fluid drains into the lymphatic system instead of going back into the blood. Once these molecules have been transported into the tissue fluid they can be taken up by the cells. For the development of muscle specific molecules are needed. Muscle growth is a specific from of protein synthesis that is brought about by the diffusion of testosterone into the muscle cell. ...read more.


These nitrate and ammonia ions are taken up by the plants through their roots. Many of the ions will be incorporated into organic compounds and used to synthesis amino acids. The plant is again forming a part of the food chain. It is primary producer; this means that it is viewed as food by both herbivores and carnivores. As the plant is ingested by the herbivores or carnivores, or as the herbivore is ingested by the carnivore the nitrogen and other essential molecules are being transferred on again. This is known as the nitrogen cycle. Although at initial thought it was difficult to understand how plants and flesh were related, or how the bible had anything relevant to say about modern science, it has become clear that the symbiotic relationship between plants and animals is crucial to the survival of not just human life on earth but of all life. Animals cannot survive without muscle, without the ability to move, and we cannot generate that muscle without nitrogen. We could not obtain nitrogen without plants, which in turn would not be able to obtain enough nitrates and ammonia if animal detritus was not converted to inorganic ions that they can use. Perhaps this interdependence should serve as a reminder to humans that we are not as powerful as we think we are, and we are still fundamentally part of a very complex web, that not one of us could survive without. Indeed "all flesh is grass", we could not survive if it were not. ...read more.

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