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An Essay on the Differences between Prokaryote & Eukaryote cells.

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An Essay on the Differences between Prokaryote & Eukaryote cells All cellular organism fall into two natural groups, known as prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These two groups are fundamentally different. The terms prokaryote and eukaryote refer to the differences in the location of the DNA. In prokaryotes the DNA is not enclosed by nuclear membranes and lies free in the cytoplasm. The cells therefore lack true nuclei . The cells of eukaryotes, however, do contain true nuclei. Eukaryotes arose around 1.2 thousand million years ago, and they evolved from prokaryotes which began around 3.5 thousand million years ago. Although the location of the DNA in the cells is the major difference between the cell types, there are many more differences, which are explored below. ...read more.


While in eukaryotes the DNA is not naked and is associated with protein & RNA to form chromosomes. In the two types of cells the ribosomes which are used in protein synthesis are slightly different, in prokaryotic cells the ribosome are 70S and smaller than the 80S larger ribosomes in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells the ribosomes may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, while in prokaryotic cells there is no endoplasmic reticulum. When it comes to organelles prokaryotes have relatively few, and the ones present have no envelope surrounding them. Furthermore, prokaryotes have few internal membranes, and if present they are usually only used for respiration or photosynthesis. On the other hand eukaryotes have many organelles, and many are envelope bounded such as the nucleus or mitochondria. ...read more.


In eukaryotes the cell walls of green plants and fungi are rigid and contain polysaccharides; cellulose is the main strengthening compound in plant walls and chitin in fungal walls, however, there are none in animal cells. However, prokaryotes cell walls are rigid and contain polysaccharides with amino acids, and murein is the main strengthening compound. Finally when it comes to movement of the cells, flagellum is used in cells; however the flagellum in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are slightly different. In prokaryote cells the flagella is simple and lacking in microtubules, it is also extra cellular, and it has an average diameter of 20nm. On the other hand in eukaryotes the structure is complex with '9+2' arrangement of microtubules, it is also intracellular, and the eukaryote flagella also have a diameter of around 200nm. In conclusion, as seen there are many differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, in functions, structure and processes. ...read more.

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