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An essay on the structure of a typical human cell.

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Introduction

An essay on the structure of a typical human cell. In this essay I will be discussing the structure of typical human cell, and talking about the functions of structures. Moreover I will also be touching on some detail of typical human cells, which will include processes. Typical human cell structures contain linear DNA which is in the nucleus. The nucleus contains genetic information and controls what happens in the cell. Also a cell contains a cytoplasm, cell membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), larger-80S ribosomes, lysosomes and Golgi bodies. All high resolution typical human cells structure is only seen under an electron microscope, this is because of the useful magnification limit the electron microscope has. The useful magnification of the electron microscope is up to 500,000 times. All typical human cells contain membrane surrounded organelles. This is because they are eukaryotic cells; all but primitive cells. Eukaryotic cells are 10-100 micron meters in diameter. The nucleus has structures within it, nucleolus, genetic material (chromosomes and DNA) ...read more.

Middle

Finally at the releasing face the Golgi body packages the modified chemicals in lysosomes, the lysosomes come of the round edges of the flattened cavities which also give the lysosomes a surrounding membrane. The lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes therefore are, involved in metabolic reactions, lysosomes secrete out of the cell via the cell membrane. Some of the lysosome remain in the cell and hydrolyses old and dead organelles or surplus organelles of the cell takes place. Furthermore the lysosomes can even be used to break down material which has entered the cell by the process of endocytosis. The tertiary structure of the protein lysosome is an anti-bacterial compound. The nucleus/DNA information also controls what the cell membrane lets in and out. What is more, the cell membrane has a phospholipids bilayer. The phospholipids are made from two fatty acids, a glycerol and a phosphate group. The glycerol and two amino acids join by condensation reactions, and the oxygen atom is shared in the ester bonds, between the two fatty acids and the glycerol molecule. ...read more.

Conclusion

The great importance of the mitochondria is that it respires to give out energy to the cell, and the cell has several of these organelles respire aerobically to give out ATP energy to power active transport by using enzymes, ATP is used to make big molecules and help muscle contract this is about 1-10 micro meters in size up to 1000 in cytoplasm of each cell. Another organelle which a typical human cell has is smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This is not connected to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The SER also has compartments in which there are cisternae. Furthermore the SER is involved in lipid and phospholipids production. Also the synthesis of steroids takes place here as well. Sometimes this is linked to the rough endoplasmic reticulum is further away in the cell. Hence in you can see that the typical human cells have a complex structure, when each structure does its particular function then it all adds up to carry out a particular job in a typical human cell. ?? ?? ?? ?? Rizwan Qadir Key Skills Communication level 3 Dr. Parker Admin No. 32634 ...read more.

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