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An Investigation Into How Temperature Effects Enzymes.

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Introduction

An Investigation Into How Temperature Effects Enzymes By Michael Edwards I am investigating the effect of temperature on enzyme action. Many chemical reactions take place inside a cell. Catalysts called enzymes control the speeds at which the cell reactions take place. Enzymes are proteins that are substrate specific. Input variable: the temperature of the enzymes. Output variable: the speed the enzymes take to break the starch / substrate down Equipment List Water Bath Water Iodine Amalase solution Starch solution Boiling tube Spotting Tile Timer Method Firstly, I will place the amalase and starch solutions into boiling tubes (amalase is an enzyme that breaks down starch) and then place them in the water bath, which will be set at a certain temperature. To make sure the solutions have reached the desired temperature, then there needs to be a thermometer in each boiling tube. Once at this desired temperature I will start the timer and every minute add 5ml of the amalase solution and 5ml of the starch solution can be added to 5ml of iodine, which will be in a spotting tile near to the water bath. The tile must be near to the water bath because if it is far away, then the temperature of the starch and amalase solutions will have changed temperature as they try to get to room temperature. ...read more.

Middle

then they obviously work, for the absence of even one enzyme in the body can cause illness, for example, people who do not produce the enzyme lactose can't digest the sugar 'lactose' they get cramps and diarrhoea if they consume lactose in dairy products, this is because the sugar builds up in their gut. Therefore the solution should stay brown, as the enzymes break down the starch into glucose and iodine doesn't react with glucose; it only reacts with starch. But, when the enzymes are mixed with the starch and iodine when they are at higher and lower temperatures than body temperature, then I think they will not work as quickly and therefore, the solution should go black as the starch will react with the iodine as it has not been broken down and then it will take longer for the solution to return to brown (the starch has been broken down) . Some evidence for this prediction is when you test for the effect of pH on enzymes, you add amalase and starch solutions at various pH levels (2:Acidic, 7:Nuetral, 12:Alkaline) and then you watch whether the reaction turns inky black or if it stays brown. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I wanted to write out the prediction again based on the book, it would be: I think that amalase will work quickly at body temperature and then the reaction will get slower the colder or warmer the temperature is that that the enzymes are in. I think this because the book 'Key Science' by David Applin shows what the graph should look like, it shows a graph with the positive coefficient of x�, but if I was to draw the graph it would have to have a negative coefficient of - x� because the graph in the book has on its y axis reaction rate and so, the higher up the y axis, the quicker the reaction and the lower down the y axis, the slower the reaction is. Since I am drawing graphs with time upon the y-axis then the graph would be turned completely 'upside down' as the higher up my y-axis the slower the reaction and the lower down my y-axis, the quicker the reaction. I did not write this prediction originally but my prediction was still correct. Final Conclusion Overall I think that my experiment was done quite well and I stayed to my plan apart from the amount of enzyme, starch and iodine. The only thing disappointing with the experiment was that the results weren't correct. ...read more.

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