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An investigation into the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction, on the enzyme Amylase.

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Introduction

An investigation into the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction, on the enzyme Amylase. Enzymes and their importance... In certain places, the walls of the alimentary canal produce digestive juices containing chemicals called digestive enzymes. These enzymes break food down into chemically simpler substances, which are soluble. In other words, an enzyme reaction is a process of substrate e.g. starch being changed into a product such as glucose over a period of time. Enzymes, which are giant protein molecules, are biological catalysts that speed up the cells chemical reactions, but don't get used up them selves in the reaction. At body temperature, (37?c) all sorts of chemical reactions occur at speeds, which would be quite impossible without the presence of enzymes. Specificity of enzymes. Each type of enzyme will normally work only one food substance or a group of similar food substances. E.g. Amylases - digest starchy foods into sugars, e.g. glucose. Lipases - digest fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol. Proteases - digest proteins into amino acids. Digestive enzymes digest food by breaking down into chemicals, which are soluble. ...read more.

Middle

I will get the water bath to the correct temperature so I am ready to put the test tube in. I will put 2.5ml of starch into the test tube after I have put the amylase in so I can get a correct reading at the start to tell me if starch is present. I will put the test tube in the bath with the starch, then add the amylase and then take a sample. The dimple tray will have a drop of iodine in each dimple so I can begin to take samples to ensure starch is still present. I have to take a sample every 20 seconds so I will be close to when the starch goes, therefore, a sample every 20 seconds should give me a more accurate reading. I will mix the starch and amylase together to make sure the reaction takes place properly. I will carry out 3 tests at each temperature to ensure that my results are accurate, and then I will get an average of the time taken to put in my results. I will do the experiment at five different temperatures, 20?c, 30?c, 40?c, 50?c and 60?c, so that my results will be over a good temperature range, with results going both below and above the optimum temperature. ...read more.

Conclusion

Between 20? and 40? the time taken decreased, then after 40? the time takes longer. The longest time for it to disappear is at 60? where it reaches 11.5 minutes. At our first temperature, which is 20? the starch disappears after 4.5 minutes. The time taken between the first recorded temperature and the second is a very large gap of 7?. The shape of my graph goes down, and then curves at the bottom before rising up again. As in my hypothesis, I predicted that the starch would digest quickest at 40?c as the enzyme changes shape in order for the substrate to fit in the correct place and that when the temperature goes above 40?c the digestion process would take a lot longer and the reaction would take a lot longer. (The reaction would stop altogether), therefore my hypothesis was correct. Evaluation: I think that my experiment went well, there were no problems and everything went to plan! The dropping pipettes were not accurate enough though and also, stirring the amylase and starch was not a good idea as this could contradict the fact that my experiment was a fair test as I may have stirred one experiment more than another causing it to digest faster and then not stirred another enough which would mean it taking longer to digest. ...read more.

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