• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An Investigation into the Effect of Varying pH on Enzyme Activity

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation into the Effect of Varying pH on Enzyme Activity Introduction Protease is an enzyme that reacts with protein to break it down into its constituents. Enzyme activity can be affected by the change of pH, temperature and the concentration of substrate or enzyme in the solution. The focal aim of this experiment is to see what pH our protease works at best to determine where it is made in the body. The casein used comes from marvel milk and is a protein. It is a protein that is present in milk to give it its white colour. When broken down into amino acids, the milk becomes clearer. When the protease reacts with the casein, it turns clearer from its original cloudy colour. The reaction therefore would be monitored using a colorimeter that measures the amount of light going through the solution and the more light that is let through, the more the amount of substrate has been broken down. However the colorimeter uses a filter to only let some wavelengths of light through or else it would let all the light through not showing distinctions between different solutions. Therefore a filter must be used and as the come in different colours letting only some wavelengths of light through so the most suitable was chosen for the experiment which was 490 nm. (A filter was not necessary for the experiment but one had to be used as the colorimeter would not work without one.) The buffer solutions are solutions that resist changes in their pH, even when small amounts of acid or base are added. They are said to be amphoteric. So if 8.8 pH buffer solution is added, it would mean that the total pH of the solution is 8.8 and they keep the pH constant but if the solution gets acidic to the pH of 8.9, it would remove some hydroxide ions to get the pH back to 8.8. ...read more.

Middle

increases in acidic conditions, it will determine the acid is made in the stomach and in the duodenum if it works best in alkaline conditions. Results In the experiment, three repeats were done for each different buffer solution. They were written down and the average time was found out. The rate of reaction was also found by dividing 1 by the average time taken and then multiplied it by 1000 to make it easier to plot on a graph. Analysis Looking at the graph very strong positive correlation can be seen showing that as the pH increased, the rate of reaction increased (The positive correlation is represented with a red oval). The graph also shows that the enzyme used has the optimum pH of 8.8 as the rate of reaction is the highest (58.8). An enzyme is a globular protein molecule which in a biochemical reaction as a catalyst. Enzymes can be intracellular (work within a cell) or extra cellular (work outside a cell). The enzyme used here was trypsin. This conclusion was reached using scientific knowledge and research. Enzymes are very sensitive to pH changes and they all have an optimum pH where they work best at. The enzyme used in this experiment worked best at pH 8.8 showing that its optimum pH was alkaline suggesting firstly that it was trypsin. Looking at the graph it can be also deduced that the trypsin did not work best at the acidic conditions. This suggests that if extreme pHs were to be used (lesser the pH of 5.9) the trypsin would not work. This is due to there being many free H+ ions (in too acidic solutions) and OH- ions (in too alkaline solutions) thus disrupting the ionic bonds, that maintain the tertiary structure and denaturing the enzyme and changing the shape of the active site therefore no reaction happening as the substrate will not fit as readily into the active site. ...read more.

Conclusion

Higher temperatures mean that more kinetic energy is given to the particles making them move around more and quicker making more successive collisions are possible thus increasing the rate of reaction. The colorimeter was very accurate and sensitive and was affected by light from the environment around so the experiment was done on the same day to ensure that the climate and conditions were the same. However, it is a possibility that the slight changes in light would have changed the amount of light transmitted through therefore increasing the chance of human error. Another aspect that could be considered is the use of a flea (magnetic stirrer) that would mix the solution more uniformly for each experiment ensuring more reliable results. In the experiment the testube was shaken for each repeat as evenly as possible but it was not as accurate as using a magnetic stirrer and therefore due to human error the shaking would have affected our results showing a change in the rate of reaction. (More mixing means more chance of an enzyme substrate collision). In future attempts a different range of pHs could be used (for example: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4... instead of 5.9 then 7.0) so that it would help confirm a stronger trend as there would be more points to plot on the graph. Going beyond the pH of 8.8 would show if the optimum was really pH 8.8 or if the rate of reaction did increase on other pHs beyond 8.8 and when the enzyme actually becomes denatured. Also investigating how different factors affect the rate of reaction with the enzymes like the change of temperature or the concentration (instead of 2% protease) would be considered to illustrate the characteristics of enzymes. However all the aspects mentioned above could have affected the results but a general trend was discovered therefore showing that they really did not have a huge affect. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the effect of pH on Trypsin

    4 star(s)

    molecules have sufficient energy to overcome activation energies, thus increased temperature will alter the rate of reaction. In order to ensure an accurate experiment temperature must be thermostatically controlled using a water bath set at 40oC. I will also use control solutions, which are important in ruling out other extraneous

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Enzyme concentrations using trypsin enzume and casein solution

    Analysis of results The rate of an enzyme reaction depends on the concentrations of enzyme and substrate. As the concentration of the trypsin increases the percentage of transmission rate also increases. Provided that the substrate concentration is high and that temperature is kept constant, the rate of reaction is proportional to the enzyme concentration.

  1. Investigate the effect of enzyme temperature on the activity of the enzyme Trypsin on ...

    Enzymes also have an optimum pH level. If it changes from the optimum pH level, the chemical nature of the amino acid can change. The tertiary structure will break down as the bonds will change. The active site will be disrupted if the tertiary structure breaks down and the enzyme will be denatured.

  2. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of temperature on the ...

    The overall reaction between the enzyme and substrate can be represented by the following equation: ENZYME + SUBSTRATE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE Complex ENZYME + PRODUCTS There are several factors, which affect enzyme activity. Enzymes, being proteins, are sensitive to changes in their environment.

  1. An Investigation Into the Effect of Substrate Concentration On the Rate of Enzyme Activity.

    The time taken for the bead to travel from the bottom of the test tube to the top will be recorded. This will be repeated using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. The next preliminary test will be to replace the hydrogen peroxide with distilled water.

  2. Investigation in to the effect of temperature on the activity on the enzyme Trypsin.

    Any other possible variables such as enzyme concentration and pH must be kept invariable to ensure more accurate results from the experiment. HYPOTHESIS: The kinetic theorem states that all particles are in constant motion and always possess a certain amount of Kinetic Energy.

  1. Catalyse Investigation

    A stop clock is most suitable because it is accurate and can easily be stopped and started without looking at it. 8. 8. After five minutes enter the amount of gas collected in the burette on the table, making sure that this point is at eye level to eliminate parallax error.

  2. Amylase Investigation

    Each of these physical and chemical parameters must be considered and optimised in order for an enzymatic reaction to be accurate and reproducible. As a rule, enzymes do not attack living cells. As soon as a cell dies, however, enzymes that break down protein rapidly digest it.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work