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An Investigation into the Effects of a Single Factor on the Rate of Transpiration of 2 Different Species of Plant

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Introduction

An Investigation into the Effects of a Single Factor on the Rate of Transpiration of 2 Different Species of Plant. The aim of this investigation is to determine and compare how variation of a named factor affects the transpiration rates of 2 different species of plant. The process of transpiration is the process in which water vapour is lost from within the plant and goes into the atmosphere. It occurs only when stomata are open on the leaves of the plant which allows the water vapour to pass through going to the lower water potential outside the leaf.(1) The actual rate of the transpiration can be effected by many different factors including light intensity, wind speed, temperature and humidity of air surrounding plant. In this investigation I am going to look into how one of these factors affects the rate of transpiration of 2 different species of plant. Factor (variant) = wind speed Plants = holly and privet To get a fair investigation then the other factors must be kept as constants i.e. they must remain the same throughout the experiment whilst taking results as if they are not the results may be inaccurate and inconsistent in respect to what they should be. I think that as wind speed increases the rate of transpiration will increase, this is because the wind intensity will be getting rid of the ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus 1 branch of holly 1 branch of privet 1 fan 1 potometer with mm scale (only simple one required i.e. capillary tube (300mm long) with rubber connector and a mm scaled ruler taped to it) 1 clamp stand with clamp 1 meter ruler 1 large bowl filled with water 1 stop clock 1 anemometer 1 pair secatures Method Whilst preparing the potometer no air must come into contact with the end of the shoot (of either plant) therefore the first stage (preparation) must be carried out under water. 1. Set up fan and clamp stand firstly at 10cm away from each other (make sure blinds are down and lights are on to keep light intensity as a constant and take temperature using thermometer throughout to make sure temperature is also kept constant) 2. Submerge the capillary tube under the water in the large bowl ensuring no bubbles are in it 3. Cut the shoot of the plants end off under the water slanted as this will reduce the chance of air being taken up if the shoot happens to come out of the water momentarily. 4. Insert the end of the shoot into the water-tight rubber seal (ensuring water-tight by applying petroleum jelly around joins). 5. Turn fan on then take shoot and place on clamp in line with flowing air then start timer (first time don't turn fan on as it is the control with no wind speed) ...read more.

Conclusion

To work this out cm2 paper and a small measuring device (mm ruler) are required. 1. Draw around every leaf on squared paper and count how many cm2 surface area they take up. 2. work out volume of capillary tube After working out the radius which is the width of the hole/2 you must put it into this equation for each of the average lengths of the two plants giving you the volume of water transpired over 1 min (mm-2min-1) 3. Then you must work out how much is transpired per cm2 of surface area which is a simple equation: Volume of water transpired over 1min / surface area of leaves (cm2) This will produce you with another table which looks like this: Plant Distance from fan No fan 10cm 20cm 30cm 40cm 50cm 60cm 70cm 80cm 90cm 100cm Privet (mm3cm-2min-1) Holly (mm3cm-2min-1) It would now be sensible to convert from distance to an actual wind speed using the digital anemometer as now you have more time and don't have to worry about the potometer and stop clock. E.g. 10cm = 35mph 20cm = 32mph (not accurate just estimates) Etc... From the table of results on the previous page and the wind speeds produced from the anemometer you can then produce a graph similar to the one I drew earlier for my predictions. This graph will show the relationship between wind speed and transpiration rates and how they differ between the 2 species of plant. ...read more.

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