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An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Reactions

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Introduction

An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Reactions Objective- To find the effect temperature has on the reaction between Trypsin and Albumin. Introduction An Enzyme is a specialised organic substance, composed of polymers of amino acids that act as catalysts to regulate the speed of many different chemical reactions involved in the metabolism of living organisms. There are more than 700 different enzymes. They can be classified into several categories, such as hydrolytic, oxidising, and reducing, depending on the type of reaction they control or influence. Hydrolytic enzymes use water molecules in the break down of substances into smaller substances. Oxidising enzymes, known as oxidises, accelerate oxidation reactions; reducing enzymes speed up reduction reactions, in which oxygen is removed. Many other enzymes catalyse other types of reactions. The Lock and Key Theory: In their structure, one or more polypeptide chains change, bringing together small numbers of amino acids to form the active site- the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. If the enzyme and substrate fail to bind (their shapes do not match exactly), a reaction fails to take place. This ensures that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction. The enzyme itself is unaffected by the reaction only the substrate. When the products of the reaction have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrate. Trypsin, which is secreted by the pancreas and brings about the digestion of meat, controls many different reactions, whereas others, such as urease, are extremely specific and may accelerate only one reaction. Others release energy to make the heart beat and the lungs expand and contract. Many aid the conversion of sugar and foods into the various substances the body requires for tissue-building, the replacement of blood cells, and the release of chemical energy to move muscles. ...read more.

Middle

* Albumin- the substrate which will be broken down by the enzyme. * Colorimeter- to accurately read the colour absorption and to accurately see how much Albumin has been broken down. * Test Tube(s) - number will depend on number of temperatures and repeats needed for accurate results. * Bunsen- to heat water and keep at constant heat. * Beaker(s) - to act as water bath and then test tube with experiment. * Thermometer- to check the temperature of the solution and the water. * Tripod and Gauze- to carry the water bath. * H2O- for heating. * Pipette to accurately measure the amount if solutions being used. * pH8 Buffer- to keep pH of solution to pH8. * Measuring Cylinder- to measure amounts of solutions. This equipment will ensure a fair and safe test providing accurate results. Diagram Method The temperatures used should be 0�c, 10�c, 20�c, etc up to 60�c. This gives a wide range of results and will allow us to find the peak of the enzyme and where it begins to denature, if it does at all. 1. Gather all equipment and ensure they are they are a clean. Set-up as shown in diagram. 2. Place 50ml of water in a beaker and begin heating to required temperature, checking with thermometer. 3. Place 1ml of Trypsin, 2ml of Albumin and 1ml of Buffer into a colour vessel and take a reading. Repeat this three times and take an average. Note this reading and name it your CONTROL. 4. When temperature is at required level remove Bunsen but occasionally replace to maintain the temperature. Place a test tube in to the water bath and leave for about a minute for it to achieve the same temperature as the water. ...read more.

Conclusion

This does in no way mean that the experiment was unfair, however it does bring to our attention that this experiment was only a "simulation" of the body. In conclusion, Enzymes are very complex parts of every day life and changes in temperature can cause them to act in very different ways that can be harmful to organisms. The results and the conclusion support my Hypothesis and further prove it to be correct. Everything stated in my Hypothesis was true in the experiment and it described the graph almost exactly before it was drawn. Evaluation The data obtained in this experiment supports my conclusion well. However there certain area in which I think there could have been better planning e.g. the odd results at 20�c- reading could have been taken at 5�c intervals instead of 10�. This would have given more results to plot on a graph and see if this was actually an anomaly or not. I am convinced that the results show there is a correlation between the temperature and the Colour of the solution. The accuracy of these measurements could be improved by the use of a burette instead of a measuring cylinder, as it is a more precise piece of equipment and there are fewer margins for error. Another source of error may have been in the water baths, as they were supposed to be set at fixed temperatures to heat up the substances. One had to be very careful that the substances did not exceed or drop their planned temperatures or the experiment would not be fair. This could have been resolved by using an electronic water bath that would be fixed at temperature using a thermostat. The experiment in its entirety was successful, but it could be improved by the use of more accurate equipment and better organisation. Rajesh Dhokia GCSE Coursework- Biology ...read more.

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