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An Investigation Into the Stages of Mitosis

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Introduction

Investigation into the different stages of Mitosis found in a prepared slide of Allium root tips Mitosis and meiosis are the two types of nuclear cell division which occur in animals and humans. Meiosis is the type of nuclear division which halves the number of chromosomes for sexual reproduction. Mitosis is the process which produces two genetically identical daughter cells, both of which have the same number of chromosomes in the nucleus, as in the parent cell. Mitosis is part of a process called the cell cycle. This process is very precisely controlled, as no information must be lost when the cells are dividing. The cell cycle consists of three phases - interphase; nuclear division; and cell division. Within the cycle there is a regular cycle of division, which is separated by periods in which the cell will grow. The first of the phases; interphase, is the longest phase and so takes up most of the cell cycle. There are three phases within interphase - first growth phase (G1); Synthesis Phase (S); and the second growth phase (G2). (G1) - Many substances are synthesised here, especially proteins. There is an increase in the size and number of organelles, and cell specialisation may take place. ...read more.

Middle

Image from: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab3/field.html Risk Assessment Hazard Strategy 1. Acetic orcein stain is corrosive and can stain skin on contact. It may also splash into the eyes and cause damage. 2. Bunsen burner which is used when heating the watch glass needs to be looked out for. 3. Hair/clothes could get in the way, or possibly catch on fire. Gloves and safety glasses must be worn at all times during the experiment. When the Bunsen is not being used, make sure it is on safety flame, or turned off. Ensure long hair is kept tied back and out of the way. Suitable clothing should be worn. Null Hypothesis With there being four stages in the mitotic cell cycle, I would expect there to be 25% of cells in each stage, meaning a ratio of 1:1:1:1, so that there is an equal number of all four stages. However, the results obtained - shown in the table below - show something different. Results PHASES Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase My Results 22 16 10 2 Study 1 27 4 9 10 Study 2 20 9 15 6 Study 3 11 7 17 15 Study 4 20 13 11 6 Study 5 16 8 14 12 Study 6 21 15 9 5 Study 7 15 4 8 23 Study 8 4 26 6 14 Study 9 22 16 10 2 ...read more.

Conclusion

Ensure it is measure accurately, using a ruler, before cutting it. Heating The instructions specifically said to heat it for 5 minutes. It may be heater too much, or too little. Use a timer-stopwatch to keep track of the time. Don't use clocks on the wall. Volume of dye No more than 10 drops of the dye and just one drop of hydrochloric acid are required. People may have miscounted and put too much in. Ensure this is done with great accuracy. Make sure you use a dropper that will not leak out anymore than what is necessary. Counting cells The cells are all packed quite closely together so it was difficult to count them. Errors such as counting the same cell more than once could be made. Use a method, perhaps going in a certain direction or using the pointer on the microscope to keep track of the cells. Identification of stages People may be unfamiliar with the stages of mitosis, and so mistake one stage for another. Some people may have even made up results. People should familiarise themselves with the different stages of mitosis. Use images to compare the cells with. Results Counting only 50 cells each will lower the accuracy. Count more cells to make the results more reliable and accurate. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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