• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An Investigation On The Effects Of Calcium Ions On The Coagulation Of Milk

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation On The Effects Of Calcium Ions On The Coagulation Of Milk Introduction In this investigation, we are to observe the effect of calcium ions on the coagulation of milk. Here we can bring about the effect of coagulation by introducing the enzyme rennin into the milk where as the addition of calcium chloride solution will increase the concentration of calcium ions in our sample of milk. Initially I believe that in the presence of more calcium ions, the results would be a higher rate of coagulation. We can observe this by dipping a microscope slide in a sample of milk with the rennin and to observe the "flecks of curd" on the slide. Theory and Background Rennin is an enzyme which is synthesized in the stomach, its role is to curdle milk; this is especially important in organisms as coagulation enables the digestion of the milk protein; in this case casein. Otherwise the milk would just pass through the digestive system as a liquid, hence unable to be absorbed. ...read more.

Middle

* During the production of each milk mixture, I will ensure that the volume will be exactly the same; in this case 9 cm3 in any given solution. Distilled water is to be added in order to make a mixture to the given amount, note that water is not reactive hence it will not cause any deviations or sudden change in the reaction. Altogether there will be 6 different sample of milk to test, each will have a different concentration of calcium ions. As a control, there will be a sample of milk in which all the calcium ions are removed via the addition of sodium citrate, this will prove that calcium ions are required for the coagulation process. The following composition in the test samples are shown in a diagram below. Test tubes were to be cleaned out first in order to prevent contamination, also for each solution that was added, a different graduated pipette was used; this was to prevent any effects of cross- contamination. ...read more.

Conclusion

Firstly we can create a larger range of concentrations which we could test; this would give us a larger range of data which we could work with. Also in order to keep a constant environment we can employ the use of a water bath, perhaps set to 25oC - room temperature and also use a buffer to keep pH constant at neutral. Due to the unsuitable nature of the microscope slide, watch glasses should be used instead as the concaved shape enables the solution to stay in the container unlike the slides. For reliability it is necessary to obtain repeats, perhaps up to 3 sets of data, this will reinforce the fact that the results are accurate and that there were no anomalous results in the data which I obtained. However it is difficult to calculate the amount of calcium ions due to the fact that some are present in the milk beforehand, one variation may be to remove it beforehand and from there add excess artificial ions via the solution. Further investigates can be attempted in the form of the reaction's environment such as temperature and pH conditions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Affect of concentration of calcium ions on the coagulation of milk

    The syringes enable the volumes to be measured precisely to 0.1cm3 and the water baths allow the temperature to remain constant throughout the experiment. * Rennin solution * Milk * Sodium citrate solution * 1.0mol dm-3 calcium chloride solution * Hydrostatic water baths * Distilled water * 1.00cm3 syringe *

  2. Investigation to find out what effect changing the concentration of calcium ions has on ...

    I will therefore reduce the time interval to every 5 seconds, resulting in more accurate timing. Also I will stop timing after 3 minutes, as most of the concentrations would have already reacted. b)

  1. A2 coursework- The effects of bile salts on digestion of fat

    Concentrations can be written on these and then stuck on boiling tubes. 1 Buffer solution Used to calibrate the pH probe so to make the pH readings more accurate and so the whole experiment more reliable. 1 Lab coat To protect clothing.

  2. To find out what factors affect the rate of reaction between rennin and milk.

    The actual rate of reaction that will take place will be a balance between the two opposing influences of greater kinetic movement of molecules increasing the rate and the decreasing rate due to denaturation of the rennin. 10. pH How will the pH affect the rate at which rennin acts on milk?

  1. Find out what effect different temperatures have on the enzyme, rennin, in milk.

    The collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules are more frequent and this allows a greater number of substrate molecules to enter the active site of the enzyme more often. When they do collide, they do so with more energy.

  2. What Effect Does The Temperature Of Water Used Have On The Rate Of Coagulation ...

    The tertiary structure of a protein results from 3D coiling of the already folded chain of amino acids. It is formed by chemical bonds between the R groups of the amino acids and the protein folds into an irregular 3D shape. Proteins with tertiary structures are known as globular proteins.

  1. Catalyse Investigation

    Potato tubers contain peroxisomes, although I don't know why. I suppose if new plants have to grow from them, they have to have all the parts of the plant with the store of food. If a potato is exposed to light it goes green, so I suppose this is proof because could not go green without chloroplasts.

  2. Investigation to see what effect the changing the concentration of calcium ions has on ...

    A concentration of 2cm� will remove all the calcium ions. Gradually I shall decrease the concentration of the solution each time. Then I shall make 5 different concentrations of calcium chloride. Then I shall add one of these concentrations to the milk solution and label the concentration that I have added.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work