• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2

# Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach INTRODUCTION Volumetric analysis is a common quantitative technique to obtain unknown concentration of a solution with a known volume by reacting it with a standard solution that has a known volume as well as an accurately known concentration. Standard solution can be obtained by reacting a solution against another solution whose concentration is known accurately or by dissolving a primary standard in a known volume of water. The procedure of mixing the two solutions until they have just reacted completely, using burettes and pipettes, is known as titration. The equivalence point is the point when correct stoichiometric amounts of the chemicals are present. At the equivalence point of an acid-base reaction, the solutions are neutralised. ...read more.

Middle

APPARATUS & METHOD Refers to 'Experiment- Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach' QUESTION 1. The average of the three concordant titres of sodium thiosulfate solution Titre 1 = 16.5 ml Titre 2 = 14.9 ml Titre 3 = 16.4 ml The average = 15.93ml 2. Using the concentration of the standard sodium thiosulfate solution, calculate the amount, in mol, of sodium thiosulfate in the average titre. n = CV n(thiosulfate) = 0.1M � 0.01593ml = 0.001593mol 3. Deduce the amount of I2 present in each flask before the titration was commenced. n(I2) = 0.001593mol / 2 = 0.007965 mol 4 & 5. Use the equation for the reaction between OCl- ions and I- ions to find the amount of OCl- ions in each 20.00 ml aliquot of diluted bleach. ...read more.

Conclusion

m( OCl- ) = n(OCl-) � M(OCl- ) = 0.4978125� (35.45 + 16 + 22.99) = 37.0571625 = 3.7 g/L DISCUSSION Sources of error that could have contributed to our percentage of 'available chlorine' (lower percentage of chlorine than that of the manufacturer's specification) - reading incorrect numbers when using burettes - contaminated glassware (eg. since we didn't rinse the pipette and the burette, there might have been some substance left) - the end point was not sharp enough resulting in the increase of the amount of the titres - top loading the burette - inadvertent dilution of solution - passing the end point by letting the titres out of the burette too fast - not enough swirling CONLUSION Compare to the manufacturer's specification of 4.5 % 'available chlorine', our result of 3.7 % was close enough, considering many sources of error that could affected our result, that are abovementioned. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

1. ## Analysis of Chlorine bleach

31.70 35.70 27.80 32.20 Initial Burette Reading (ml) 2.90 9.80 4.40 8.30 Volume of titrant (ml) 28.80 25.90 25.40 23.50 Mean volume of titrant (ml) = __(25.90+25.40+23.50)÷3 = 25.1 ml__ Calculation: The Result Of Brand A Sodium chlorate(I) reacts with excess potassium iodide in the Bleaching solution, which is a acid medium.

2. ## Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different ...

Improvements 1. Sufficient time should be given for the reaction of acid and base. 2. pH metre should be used to detect the end point. 1. Why do we use back titration instead of acid/base titration? Acid/ base titration is very difficult because the active ingredient is only sparingly soluble in water.

1. ## Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

Minimise exposure. * Starch solution (C6H10O5)n Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Minimise exposure. Section 3 - Materials and methods Table 3.1 - A table to show the apparatus required for this investigation Apparatus Quantity Use in investigation Justification Burette 5 To measure the volumes of reactant A quick and accurate means to measure small volumes 0-100�C

2. ## Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

The method used to make up all of these solutions is the same: 1. Put on safety goggles 2. Measure out the required mass of the substance in a beaker using a balance 3. Add some deionised water to the beaker and dissolve the substance in the water using a glass rod 4.

1. ## Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

Contact with eyes Pain. Redness. Permanent loss of vision. Severe deep burns. Face shield, or eye protection in combination with breathing protection. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. Ingestion Corrosive. Abdominal pain. Convulsions. Diarrhoea. Shock or collapse.

2. ## A-level Practical Chemistry experiment - Estimation of available chlorine in a commercial bleaching solution.

(Pipette filler was used.) 6. The liquid level was made up to the graduation mark using deionized water. 7. The volumetric flask was stoppered and was inverted it for several times. (to ensure the solution mix well) 8. Step (1)

1. ## Methods of analysis and detection

Green Tea Separation in GLC ? Retention time: Time between injection and appearance of a component.? The retention time is specific to particular components for the same conditions: * * Same carrier gas * Same flow rate * Same stationary phase * Same temperature E. Mass Spectroscopy - A high resolution one (Double focusing)

2. ## An experiment to find the strength of five Household Acids And Alkalis.

In this experiment I hope to find out how strong the acids and alkalis are by trying to neutralise them with either Acids or Alkalines . To find out which are the strongest agents I am going to conduct a simple experiment using my knowledge of neutralisation.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to