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Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach

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Introduction

Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach INTRODUCTION Volumetric analysis is a common quantitative technique to obtain unknown concentration of a solution with a known volume by reacting it with a standard solution that has a known volume as well as an accurately known concentration. Standard solution can be obtained by reacting a solution against another solution whose concentration is known accurately or by dissolving a primary standard in a known volume of water. The procedure of mixing the two solutions until they have just reacted completely, using burettes and pipettes, is known as titration. The equivalence point is the point when correct stoichiometric amounts of the chemicals are present. At the equivalence point of an acid-base reaction, the solutions are neutralised. ...read more.

Middle

APPARATUS & METHOD Refers to 'Experiment- Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach' QUESTION 1. The average of the three concordant titres of sodium thiosulfate solution Titre 1 = 16.5 ml Titre 2 = 14.9 ml Titre 3 = 16.4 ml The average = 15.93ml 2. Using the concentration of the standard sodium thiosulfate solution, calculate the amount, in mol, of sodium thiosulfate in the average titre. n = CV n(thiosulfate) = 0.1M � 0.01593ml = 0.001593mol 3. Deduce the amount of I2 present in each flask before the titration was commenced. n(I2) = 0.001593mol / 2 = 0.007965 mol 4 & 5. Use the equation for the reaction between OCl- ions and I- ions to find the amount of OCl- ions in each 20.00 ml aliquot of diluted bleach. ...read more.

Conclusion

m( OCl- ) = n(OCl-) � M(OCl- ) = 0.4978125� (35.45 + 16 + 22.99) = 37.0571625 = 3.7 g/L DISCUSSION Sources of error that could have contributed to our percentage of 'available chlorine' (lower percentage of chlorine than that of the manufacturer's specification) - reading incorrect numbers when using burettes - contaminated glassware (eg. since we didn't rinse the pipette and the burette, there might have been some substance left) - the end point was not sharp enough resulting in the increase of the amount of the titres - top loading the burette - inadvertent dilution of solution - passing the end point by letting the titres out of the burette too fast - not enough swirling CONLUSION Compare to the manufacturer's specification of 4.5 % 'available chlorine', our result of 3.7 % was close enough, considering many sources of error that could affected our result, that are abovementioned. ...read more.

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