• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach

Extracts from this document...


Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach INTRODUCTION Volumetric analysis is a common quantitative technique to obtain unknown concentration of a solution with a known volume by reacting it with a standard solution that has a known volume as well as an accurately known concentration. Standard solution can be obtained by reacting a solution against another solution whose concentration is known accurately or by dissolving a primary standard in a known volume of water. The procedure of mixing the two solutions until they have just reacted completely, using burettes and pipettes, is known as titration. The equivalence point is the point when correct stoichiometric amounts of the chemicals are present. At the equivalence point of an acid-base reaction, the solutions are neutralised. ...read more.


APPARATUS & METHOD Refers to 'Experiment- Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach' QUESTION 1. The average of the three concordant titres of sodium thiosulfate solution Titre 1 = 16.5 ml Titre 2 = 14.9 ml Titre 3 = 16.4 ml The average = 15.93ml 2. Using the concentration of the standard sodium thiosulfate solution, calculate the amount, in mol, of sodium thiosulfate in the average titre. n = CV n(thiosulfate) = 0.1M � 0.01593ml = 0.001593mol 3. Deduce the amount of I2 present in each flask before the titration was commenced. n(I2) = 0.001593mol / 2 = 0.007965 mol 4 & 5. Use the equation for the reaction between OCl- ions and I- ions to find the amount of OCl- ions in each 20.00 ml aliquot of diluted bleach. ...read more.


m( OCl- ) = n(OCl-) � M(OCl- ) = 0.4978125� (35.45 + 16 + 22.99) = 37.0571625 = 3.7 g/L DISCUSSION Sources of error that could have contributed to our percentage of 'available chlorine' (lower percentage of chlorine than that of the manufacturer's specification) - reading incorrect numbers when using burettes - contaminated glassware (eg. since we didn't rinse the pipette and the burette, there might have been some substance left) - the end point was not sharp enough resulting in the increase of the amount of the titres - top loading the burette - inadvertent dilution of solution - passing the end point by letting the titres out of the burette too fast - not enough swirling CONLUSION Compare to the manufacturer's specification of 4.5 % 'available chlorine', our result of 3.7 % was close enough, considering many sources of error that could affected our result, that are abovementioned. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Analysis of Chlorine bleach

    31.70 35.70 27.80 32.20 Initial Burette Reading (ml) 2.90 9.80 4.40 8.30 Volume of titrant (ml) 28.80 25.90 25.40 23.50 Mean volume of titrant (ml) = __(25.90+25.40+23.50)÷3 = 25.1 ml__ Calculation: The Result Of Brand A Sodium chlorate(I) reacts with excess potassium iodide in the Bleaching solution, which is a acid medium.

  2. Drug: Antacid Effectiveness Analysis To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different ...

    of moles of HCl added to antacid: 0.0025 mol Results Table: Burette solution NaOH Indicator phenolphthalein Trial 1 2 3 Burette readings Initial 0.4 19.0 17.2 Final 19.0 39.0 38.1 Volume used (titre)/ cm3 18.6 20.0 20.9 Mean titre / cm3 20.5 No.

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    Repeat the reaction at room temperature until there are three concordant results, which are results with times within 10% of the average time of each other and temperatures within 1 degree Kelvin of each other 8. Set up a Bunsen burner with a water bath (see figure 2.5.1) 9.

  2. A-level Practical Chemistry experiment - Estimation of available chlorine in a commercial bleaching solution.

    (to ensure the solution mix well) 8. Step (1) was repeated for the pipette and then was rinsed with the diluted bleach. 9. 25cm3 of the diluted bleach was pipettedinto a conical flask. (Pipette filler was used.) 10. About2.0 g of KI crystals was weighed roughly in the weighing bottle by using the balance.

  1. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    The bonds are then reordered and reformed to form the products. Colliding particles are required to have a minimum kinetic energy, known as the reaction's activation enthalpy, before it is possible for them to react. Not all of the particles exceed this activation enthalpy and have the right orientation at the moment of impact to cause the reaction to proceed.

  2. Methods of analysis and detection

    Mass Spectroscopy - A high resolution one (Double focusing) In the detection of mass spectra, the following condition used in the experiment must be constant: * The same Temperature * The same ionizing voltage * The same type of instrument Analysis of an ion determine the Ar The mass spectrum for zirconium Number of isotope: 5 - 5 peaks can be observed.

  1. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    I believe this will help me in obtaining accurate results. Temperature of Reactants (�C) Time Take For the Mixture to Turn Colourless (seconds) 10 101.5 20 23.7 30 10.2 40 5.1 50 1.9 60 0.8 I also conducted a pre-test to trial my method for investigating how temperature change affects the reaction rate.

  2. An experiment to find the strength of five Household Acids And Alkalis.

    In this experiment I hope to find out how strong the acids and alkalis are by trying to neutralise them with either Acids or Alkalines . To find out which are the strongest agents I am going to conduct a simple experiment using my knowledge of neutralisation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work