• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analysis of unknown aqueous solutions.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

SECTION A - analysis of unknown aqueous solutions BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Cambridge Advances Sciences (endorsed by OCR) Chemistry 1 (pg 129) 2. Acids, Bases and Salts - Chemlab (pg 24/25) 3. Chemistry in Context (3rd edition) by Graham Hill & John Holman (pg 101) 4. http://www.cs.moravian.edu/~langhus/courses/quant/problems/abtitn/abtitn.html 5. http://www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk/page13/ChemicalTests.htm Aqueous Calcium Hydroxide Carbon dioxide is easily identified using a solution of calcium hydroxide (limewater). When carbon dioxide is bubbled through limewater, it turns cloudy (formation of calcium carbonate precipitate). Ca(OH) (aq) + CO2 (g) --> CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l) EQUIPMENT: 1. 5 straws 2. 5 solutions (each in a test tube) METHOD: 1. Carefully blow into each solution 2. The one that turns cloudy will be calcium hydroxide Ethanoic Acid When ethanoic acid is warmed with ethanol (in presence of a strong acid catalyst) ethyl ethanoate is formed. During this reaction, the O-H bond in ethanol is broken. ...read more.

Middle

The fumes produced contain ammonia. Now test for ammonia using hydrochloric acid. When a strip of filter paper is soaked in concentrated hydrochloric acid and exposed to ammonia gas, a white smoke made of fine ammonium chloride particles is produced. Aluminium powder (a reducing agent) converts the nitrate ion (NO3-) into ammonia gas (NH3). concentrated hydrochloric acid + ammonia --> ammonium chloride HCl (conc) + NH3 (g) --> NH4Cl (s) EQUIPMENT: 1. Sodium hydroxide solution 2. Fine aluminium powder 3. Hydrochloric acid 4. Filter paper 5. 5 beakers (one with each solution in it) 6. Heating equipment (including Bunsen, splints and heatproof mat) METHOD: 1. To each solution add aluminium powder and sodium hydroxide solution 2. Boil. Meanwhile soak filter paper in hydrochloric acid 3. Expose piece filter paper to gas 4. If nitric acid (and ammonia gas is present) ...read more.

Conclusion

Safety goggles METHOD: 1. Set up the clamp stand and burette 2. Making sure tap is closed, pour acid into burette 3. Place beaker underneath and expel some of the liquid (to remove air bubbles) 4. Refill with acid until reading reaches 0cm3 5. Remove funnel 6. Measure 25cm3 of sodium carbonate and put into conical flask 7. Add 3 drops of methyl orange indicator and mix 8. Place conical flask on white tile and begin titration 9. Slowly add small amounts of the titrant from the burette, swirling the mixture between additions 10. As soon as the solution turns pink (end-point of reaction) stop the flow of acid from the burette and measure how much has been used 11. Repeat the experiment 3 times for more accurate results and use the average in calculations Chemical tests & Titration Shahida Jaffer Centre number - 52303 Candidate number - 8125 Chemical Practical Plan Page 1 of 3 Chemical tests & Titration Shahida Jaffer Centre number - 52303 Candidate number - 8125 Chemical Practical Plan Page 3 of 3 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

    needed because, this is what helps to dilute the anhydrous sodium carbonate into a solution. 400 ml is a rough calculation of how much distilled water may be needed. This is because, at the end of the preparation of the sodium carbonate solution, 400 ml is supposed to be made (this is explained later in the next section).

  2. concentration of limewater

    This reaction is exothermic. The enthalpy of neutralisation is approx 58Kjmol-1. Apparatus The apparatus for a titration will include: * 50cm3 Burette * 50cm3 5cm3 and 25cm3 graduated pipettes * 100cm3 volumetric flask * Small funnel * Indicator (phenolphthalein) * 95cm3 Distilled water * 5cm3 Hydrochloric acid * 75cm3 of

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    o If the concentration of a reactant is directly proportional to the change in the rate of reactant, the reaction is said to be first order with respect to that reactant. o If the square of the concentration of a reactant is directly proportional to the change in the rate

  2. Identification of an Organic Unknown

    unknown is an alcohol or if it is both carboxylic acid and phenol. I can now do another experiment adding sodium carbonate to the compound and discover if there is a reaction. I would have a test tube with the unknown compound and I will add the sodium carbonate.

  1. Science at Work Research . Dulux Paints, a Hospital, a leisure centre and a ...

    This means the dentist will need to know the science of the body but specifically the mouth and teeth. This will be so they can give advice about brushing and healthy eating for looking after teeth and gums. They will also need to know the science of chemicals and antibiotics

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    I must always be conscious of how my actions will affect those around me. Discussion of chemicals used in this investigation * Potassium Peroxydisulphate(VI), K2S2O8 Harmful if swallowed. Eye, skin and respiratory irritant. May cause allergic respiratory or skin reaction.

  1. Methods of analysis and detection

    or water * Testing drugs on racehorse * Cancer Treatment - Urine analysis F. Electrophoresis - Biological analysis Electrophoresis is separation of charged particles by their movement in an electric field. The visual presentation is by using - Electropherogram. Although the amino acid solution is colourless, its position after a

  2. Describe the construction, operation and application of distillation equipment used in industry

    Valve Trays: The smallest chance of dumping due to the valves on the plates restricting the flow of liquid down the column. Shower Trays: Not effective due to the lack of methods to prevent or slow down the dumping process. 4. describe the construction, operation and application of packed columns.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work