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Aspirin ( 2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid)

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Aspirin ( 2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid) Salbutamol Aspirin/salbutamol development The earliest known use of the drug can be traced back to the Greek physician Hippocrates in the fifth century B.C. He used powder extracted from the bark of willows to treat pain and reduce fever. The uses of salicylic acid derivatives were also recorded in the Middle Ages. Salicin, the parent of the salicylate drug family, was successfully isolated in 1829 from willow bark. Sodium salicylate, aspirin's predecessor, was developed along with salicylic acid in 1875 as a pain reliever. This however, had an irritating effect on the stomach and caused vomiting. German chemist Felix Hoffmann, wanted to find a chemical that wouldn't be so hard on his father's stomach lining; reasoning that salicylic acid may be irritating because it is an acid, he put the compound through some chemical reactions that covered up one of the acidic functional groups with an acetyl group, converting it to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). He found that ASA not only could reduce fever and relieve pain and swelling, but he believed it was better for the stomach and worked even better than salicylic acid. ...read more.


To try and produce a drug not affected by COMT, a number of different compounds related to isoproterenol were synthesised and analysed. Salbutamol itself was synthesised by a research group as in the following 3-steps. Step 1: Step 2 Step 3 How Aspirin Works When part of your body is hurt, the nerve endings release chemicals into the synapse, called prostaglandins, and working cells in the damaged tissues make these chemicals using an enzyme called cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Aspirin inhibits this enzyme from making prostaglandins, in particular PGE2. The aspirin molecule enters the interior channel of the PGHS enzyme, and the molecule splits into two. The acetyl group binds to a site inside the channel and blocks arachindonic acid from the enzyme. The above diagram shows this process with salicylic acid. Aspirin does exactly the same, apart from it sends its ethanoyl group (CH3-CO-) to the serene. It prevents the cell sending a 'pain' signal to the pain. However, aspirin also blocks COX1, which is responsible for thickening the stomach lining. Sir John Vane discovered this in the '70s. ...read more.


Inspired by improving knowledge of asthma's biochemistry, more than 40 companies worldwide are investigating drugs to control the disease. Chemists are at the forefront of this worldwide operation. Salbutamol is effective for 4 hours but chemists at Glaxo later produced Salmeterol (a bronchodilator effective for 12 hours) through an even more drastic change to the group on the nitrogen in Salbutamol. Both Salbutamol and Salmeterol are very effective asthma treatments. Due to on-going research, chemists have synthesised a new drug called Triamcinolone. Still in its testing phase, the table shows greatly increased success in comparison to Salmeterol. According to the National Asthma Campaign, chemists in the UK are currently doing the following to improve the lives of people with asthma. � the role of the primary care asthma nurse specialist in improving care for patients with poorly controlled asthma. � a test for the respiratory function of young infants which can be used in the home. � more effective treatments for people with severe asthma who are unresponsive to traditional medication. � the use of specific asthma treatments that are better targeted at problem areas and reduce the possibility of side effects. ?? ?? ?? ?? Open Book Examination Adam Spencer ...read more.

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