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Aspirin-its preparation, history and applications

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Introduction

Aspirin-its preparation, history and applications * How drugs are discovered and developed Pharmacologist along with chemist focus on a specific disease and unmet patient needs in order to discover new drugs. They search for biological targets within the body that play a role in a given disease. Unique molecules are found or created that some day might be medicines. Lead Compound Selection, is the testing of compounds that might undergo the long expensive drug develop process. Random Screening- uses existing 'library' of chemical agents. This is the simplest method but the odds are low and patience is needed. Combinational Chemistry Screening- uses a compound (from existing library) as a base, then randomly adding amino acids or molecule segments of other agents to the base compound in order to enhance the base compounds activity and disease fighting potential. The enhanced compounds are then tested in rapid screening test. However this method is complex and costly but it improves the odds. Target Synthesis- targets the disease for drug intervention. For example High Blood Pressure would be studied in detail. Consequently this method still requires screening of hundreds of compounds and extensive amount of research to understand a particular disease process. Drug Modeling- uses more high technology. ...read more.

Middle

. Purification -The acetylsalicylic acid is washed with distilled water until all the acetic acid is removed. -It is pressed to be as dry as possible and then dried more by a current of warm air at 60-70 degrees Celsius. The yield of pure acetylsalicylic acid is between 1780-1795kg per batch using this reaction process. * History of Aspirin and its modern development * How aspirin is prepared on the large scale Main reactor for the process- a glass lined 1500 gallon fitted with a water-cooled reflux condenser, thermometers with automatic temperature register and an efficient agitator. The Mother Liquor- 1532kg of acetic anhydride in 1200kg of toluene (this does not get used up.). The reactor is charged up with the mother liquor. 1382kg of salicylic acid is added to the mother liquor. The reaction mixture is heated to between 85-92 degrees Celsius and kept at this temperature for 20 hours. The reaction mixture is transferred into an aluminum-cooling tank and is allowed to cool for 3-4 days. By the end the cool mixture will have reached room temperature 15-25 degrees Celsius. At this point the acetylsalicylic acid has precipitated as large regular crystals. Mother liquor is removed by filtration or centrifuging. ...read more.

Conclusion

* How drugs such as aspirin work Prostaglandin is a chemical that is released to make the nerve ending register an even stronger pain to the brain. It is made in working cells of the damaged tissues by using an enzyme called CYCLOOXYGENASE 2 (COX-2). Prostaglandin makes you feel the pain of the damaged area and causes it to swell up (inflammation), to bathe the tissues in fluid from the blood so that it will protect it and help it heal. Pain serves the purpose here to remind you that the damaged area cannot be used, as it is not healed. However sometimes we endure pain when there is no real reason to. For example Period Pains and Arthritis. It can make people feel really uncomfortable and arthritis can damage joints permanently. ASPIRIN works by locking itself to the enzyme that makes the chemical Prostaglandin. The enzyme C0X-2 that is found in normal tissues but mostly in tissues that have been damaged in some way, can no longer convert floating chemicals into Prostaglandin because they are unable to move with the aspirin lock on. Aspirin does not treat the cause of the pain; it just lowers the pain signals getting through your nerves to the brain. * How effective aspirin is New researches suggest that an aspirin a day is a preventive measure against Heart Attacks. However the effectiveness of aspirin has differential effects depending on genetics. ...read more.

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