• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16

Aspirin Research Project

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Should the management of Aspirin be altered as a result of the adverse effects it presents? Introduction Aspirin is a common drug which is utilised for medicinal purposes around the globe. Furthermore, the drug itself is a synthetic organic compound derived from the salicylic compound group (International Aspirin Foundation, 2016). Although, aspirin may possess medicinal benefits it also poses detrimental effects to society and the environment. Hence, an issue regarding its usage is should the management of aspirin be altered as a result of the adverse effects it presents? This issue is relevant on a social level as its usage is common within societies throughout the world. Likewise, the implications of its harmful effect raise immediate concerns for the public as their safety is of importance. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Aspirin-skeletal.png Chemical Background Aspirin is known as acetylsalicylic acid and possesses a chemical formula of C9H8O4 (International Aspirin Foundation, 2016). Furthermore, it is a synthetic compound from the group of salicylates. Additionally, it is an aromatic compound which consists of an ester and carboxylic acid functional group (International Aspirin Foundation, 2016). Figure 1 reflects the chemical structure of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). Aspirin is produced through the reaction of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride with the utilisation of an acidic catalyst (Pillai, 2015). However, the salicylic acid necessary for this production is prepared through a variety of different reactions. Initially, phenol (hydroxybenzene) is reacted with sodium hydroxide to produce sodium phenoxide (Pillai, 2015). http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-wAAwqltqXWM/Ta3XpoI5a1I/AAAAAAAAABg/bpSsNi6VfQ8/s1600/OH.gif http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/structure2/051/mfcd00013134.eps/_jcr_content/renditions/mfcd00013134-medium.png + NaOH ? + H2O C6H5OH + NaOH ? C6H5ONa + H2O Phenol + Sodium Hydroxide ? Sodium Phenoxide + water (Pillai, 2015) In effect, the sodium phenoxide produced is reacted further with carbon dioxide to produce sodium salicylate (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003). http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/structure2/051/mfcd00013134.eps/_jcr_content/renditions/mfcd00013134-medium.png https://www.emdmillipore.com/waroot/medium/567630%5b567630-ALL%5d.jpg + CO2 ? C6H5ONa + CO2 ? C6H4OHCOONa Sodium Phenoxide + Carbon Dioxide ? Sodium salicylate (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003) Thus, the sodium salicylate is treated with an acid to produce salicylic acid and a sodium compound which is dependent on the acid utilised (Brown, 2016). ...read more.

Middle

G. (2015, May 3). Introduction to Preparation of Salicylic Acid. Retrieved April 10, 2015, from Slide Share: http://www.slideshare.net/yagnesh96/introduction-and-preparation-of-salicylic-acid Statista. (2016). Bayer AG's top pharmaceutical products from 2010 to 2015, based on revenue (in million euros). Retrieved April 13, 2016, from Statista: http://www.statista.com/statistics/263787/revenues-of-bayers-top-pharmaceutical-products/ unknown. (2012, June 11). Aspirin Should it be the Ideal Medicine. Retrieved April 13, 2016, from Aspirin Positive Negative Effects: http://aspirinpositivenegativeeffects.weebly.com/blog.html Weiner, D. L. (2015, April 2). Reye Syndrome. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803683-overview Article Murdoch, K. (2015, May). Pharmaceutical Pollution in the Environment:Issues for Australia, New Zealand and. National Toxics Network, pp. 5-9. Images for equations Galtra Inc, (2014), Phenol Chemical Structure [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.galtra.net/v2/index.php/intermediates/86-phenol [Accessed 9 April 2016]. Lukáš Mižoch, (2006), Acetic Anhydride Chemical Structure [ONLINE]. Available at:https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acetic_anhydride.svg [Accessed 11 April 2016]. Merck Millipore, (2016), Sodium Salicylate Chemical Structure [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.merckmillipore.com/GT/en/product/Sodium-Salicylate---CAS-54-21-7---Calbiochem,EMD_BIO-567630 [Accessed 10 April 2016]. Sigma Aldrich, (2016), Acetylsalicylic acid Chemical Structure [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/a5376?lang=en®ion=AU [Accessed 11 April 2016]. Sigma Aldrich, (2016), Sodium Phenoxide Chemical Structure [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/cds001581?lang=en®ion=AU [Accessed 11 April 2016]. Yikrazuul, (2009), Salicylic Acid Chemical Structure [ONLINE]. Available at:https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salicylic_Acid.svg [Accessed 10 April 2016]. Images Charles E Ophardt, (2003), Aspirin effect on COX Enzyme Necessary for Prostaglandin Production[ONLINE]. Available at: http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/555prostagland.htmlaspirin [Accessed 12 April 2016]. Jim Clark, (2013), Energy Profile Diagram reflecting effect of Catalyst [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/basicrates/catalyst.html [Accessed 10 April 2016] Kristie Murdoch, (2015), Pathway of Pharmaceuticals into the environment [ONLINE]. Available at:http://www.ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/NTN-Pharmaceutical-Pollution-in-the-Environment-2015-05.pdf [Accessed 29 April 2016]. Wikipedia, (2014), Chemical Structure of Aspirin [ONLINE]. Available at:https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Aspirin [Accessed 9 April 2016]. Student response Research skills Information source (correctly formatted reference) Flower, R, 2003. What are all the things that aspirin does?. The BMJ, [Online]. 327, 572-573. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC194070/ [Accessed 14 April 2016]. Relevant information highlighted in materials submitted Communication Description of information The information provided is an extract from an esteemed online medical journal known as ‘the BMJ.’ Analysis Relevance (the degree to which the source addresses the topic) ...read more.

Conclusion

and acetic acid (ethanoic acid). Sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid are often used to catalyse the reaction. salicylic acid + acetic anhydride (ethanoic anhydride) [H2SO4] ? aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) + acetic acid (ethanoic acid) http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/saliacid.gif + http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/ethanhyd.gif [H2SO4] ? http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirin.gif + CH3COOH C7H6O3(s) + C4H6O3(l) [H2SO4] ? C9H8O4(s) + C2H4O2(aq) Salicylic acid can react with acetic (ethanoic) acid in an esterification reaction, but the reaction is very slow, taking days to reach equilibrium, and the yield is low: salicylic acid + acetic acid (ethanoic acid) [H2SO4] ? aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) + water http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/saliacid.gif + CH3COOH [H2SO4] ? http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirin.gif + H2O C7H6O3 + C2H4O2 [H2SO4] ? C9H8O4(s) + H2O For this reason, the commercial preparation of aspirin relies on the faster reaction between salicylic acid and the more reactive acetic anhydride which produces a greater yield of aspirin. Reactions of Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) 1. Neutralization: acid + base ? salt + water aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) + sodium hydroxide ? a salt (sodium acetylsalicylate) + water http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirin.gif + NaOH(aq) ? http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirinna.gif + H2O(l) C9H8O4(s) + NaOH(aq) ? C9H7O4(s)-Na+ + H2O(l) 1. The neutralization reaction can be used to determine the amount of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) present in commercially available aspirin tablets using a back (indirect) titration method. 2. Reaction with carbonate: acid + carbonate ? salt + carbon dioxide + water aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) + sodium hydrogen carbonate ? a salt (sodium acetylsalicylate) + carbon dioxide gas + water http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirin.gif + NaHCO3(aq) ? http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirinna.gif + CO2(g) + H2O(l) C9H8O4(s) + NaHCO3(aq) ? C9H7O4(s)-Na+ + CO2(g) + H2O(l) 1. The reaction with bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate ion) is commonly used to prepare the salt of aspirin which is more soluble in water than the molecular form of aspirin. 2. Hydrolysis: cleavage of a covalent bond in a molecule by reaction with water aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) + water ? salicylic acid + acetic acid (ethanoic acid) http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/aspirin.gif + H2O(l) ? http://www.ausetute.com.au/images/saliacid.gif + CH3COOH(aq) C9H8O4(s) + H2O(l) ? C7H6O3(s) + C2H4O2(aq) 1. Old aspirin tablets may have a smell like vinegar as a result of the hydrolysis reaction producing acetic acid (ethanoic acid). Page | ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Synthesis of Aspirin

    was added to the boiling tube carefully. This procedure was performed in a fume cupboard. The mixture was stirred by thermometer gently and observation of the mixture and the read of the thermometer were recorded over the next 5 minutes.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Therefore the other method which will be used is back titration, which recognises the end point more easily, as it is a reaction between a strong acid and a strong base. This method will determine how much HCL is needed to neutralise the unreacted sodium hydroxide.

  1. The preparation of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol

    Sodium chloride is used to neutralize the acid and the sodium sulphate is used to absorb the moisture. Saturated sodium chloride solution is used for extracting water from the cyclohexene. Saturated sodium chloride is lower water potential solution so water in the organic layer can diffuse to the saturated salt solution.

  2. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    I could have improved this error by using a more sophisticated calorimeter called a bomb calorimeter, as shown below in the diagram. The bomb calorimeter is a device used for making accurate measurements of energy changes. The fuel is ignited electrically and burns in oxygen inside the pressurised vessel.

  1. The Preparation of 1-bromobutane

    The mixture was then shaken vigorously in the stoppered funnel releasing pressure from time to time. After the mixture had completely reacted, the organic layer was carefully sucked out. Then the 1-bromobutane was poured into a test-tube. Then we ran it into a tap funnel and 10cm3 of Sodium Hydrogencarbonate was added to the organic solution.

  2. Esterfication. he purpose of this lab is to achieve a specific odour through ...

    The alcohol family is polar but less in comparison to the carboxylic acid family since there is a smaller electronegativity difference. As a result, alcohols will have a lower melting point and boiling point in comparison to acids since the intermolecular forces or the hydrogen bonds are not as strong

  1. F336- aspirin individual Investigation

    Aspirin is soon the number one drug worldwide 1915-Aspirin becomes available without a prescription. Manufactured in tablet form and used to treat symptoms of pain related to rheumatism, lumbago & neuralgia. 1930 - Bayer's patent on aspirin runs out. 1948 - Dr.

  2. Evaluate the most suitable vegetable oil for conversion into a biodiesel fuel.

    Using average bond enthalpies values from http://chemed.chem.wisc.edu/chempaths/GenChem-Textbook/Bond-Enthalpies-718.html, the enthalpies were calculated to be as follows. The chemical formulas and bond information were taken from WolframAlpha, and the overall change in enthalpy was derived from a balanced combustion reaction equation. Table 1: Standard combustion enthalpy of some methyl ester biodiesels Methyl

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work