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Astronomy - the urge to explore space.

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Astronomy has been a very interesting subject for every generation of mankind. From ancient Greeks to the modern astronomers, everyone has tried to explore the space probably due to the urge to discover space and find everything.

The urge to explore space did not start lately but this has been passed on from generations of human beings. Some civilisations expressed the deep beauty and the attraction of the shining stars and their constellations in the space above them by worshipping them; whilst others made buildings based upon constellations of stars. A few ancient buildings in the deep and dense tropical forests that have been observed by archaeologists recently caught an astronomer’s eye as something other than just an old building. He noticed that the way the building was designed exactly identical to a constellation present in the sky. When studied in detail, it was discovered that the building’s door and the main door were exactly the same distance as two stars of the constellation from each other when they were looked at from the naked eye. It was also found out that the building door and the main door were at an angle of 20°.

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Normal Spiral Galaxies: Although the structure of spirals makes them look as if the arms are the result of some process of “winding up” as the galaxy rotates, this is not the case. The arms have existed for billions of years, and stars nearer the nucleus orbit the galaxy faster than those on the edges, so the arms cannot be lasting structures but no more akin to ripples in a rotating whirlpool. Spirals are normally classified by the opening and structures of their arms.Barred Spiral Galaxy: These are similar in structure to the normal spiral galaxies, but have a bar on either side of the nucleus, in which the spiral arms originate. Roughly one third of all spirals are barred, and these are classified in a similar way to the normal spiral galaxy.Irregular Galaxies: As suggested by the name, these are the galaxies that have no particular identifiable shape or structure. They tend to be the small satellites of other larger galaxies, such as the Magellanic Clouds that orbit the Milky Way. It is thought that their irregular shape is caused by the gravitational disruption of their larger companions.


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Black Energy”.

It has not been easy for the astronomers to make all these discoveries. They had to make plenty of gadgets to find these things. One of those is the VLT which stands for ‘Very Large Telescope’. It is named that because it is the biggest telescope on the earth at the present time. There is also another machine called VRS standing for ‘Very Small Rays’. It catches the microwave rays coming from the distant stars from all parts of the universe. It has helped the astronomers to discover new galaxies and stars in the farthest corners of the universe. With the help of VLT and VSR, in a way the astronomers are looking back in time because the light has been travelling from those stars from billions of years ago and we are getting an image of those stars or galaxies as they were billions of years ago. So far astronomers have been able to take pictures of stars in their stage after just fifteen million light years of the Big Bang. This will help astronomers to look at the universe when it was very young and it will help them to make other discoveries in this field.

Page No.                 Saeed Ahmed

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Response to the question

The candidates introduction is reasonably good, they have tried to engage the reader by mentioning mankind's constant desire to explore space. However an introduction should also include a brief description to introduce your set topic and you need to clearly ...

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Response to the question

The candidates introduction is reasonably good, they have tried to engage the reader by mentioning mankind's constant desire to explore space. However an introduction should also include a brief description to introduce your set topic and you need to clearly state exactly what you plan to discuss. Furthermore the candidates response seems jumbled, they have amalgamated several different facts but the essay itself doesn’t really flow and is hard to follow in places. This could have been avoided if the candidate had taken the time to set out a plan and think clearly about what they wanted to discuss.

Level of analysis

The candidate has taken the time to undergo independent research, this is apparent as they discuss several topics that you wouldn’t come across in A-level physics. There is a practically interesting paragraph about the mythology of astronomy and how the stars and constellations where worshipped. As well as being interesting to read this shows the candidates interest in their work and that they are capable of working independently. However the candidate has failed to write a conclusion. It is necessary to conclude your work as this allows you to summarise key points and ideas and gives a personal response to the topic, this is your chance to leave the reader with a good impression.

Quality of writing

The candidate demonstrates a good understanding of the physics topics discussed and they have used appropriate scientific terms. However there are a few spelling errors which probably could have been avoided had the candidate taken the time to proof read their work. That said there are no real issues with grammar or punctuation.

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Reviewed by pictureperfect 24/07/2012

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