• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Atomic Structure, Bonding and the Periodic Table. Revision questions.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Task 1: Atomic Structure ________________ 1. Copy and complete this table: Relative Mass Relative Charge Location Proton 1 1 Nucleus Neutron 1 0 Nucleus Electron 1/1836 -1 shells / orbital?s 2. Describe how 12C and 13C are different and how they are the same. You should include the different types of sub-atomic particles in your answer. What term is used to describe how these two atoms are related? 12C and 13C are isotopes of carbon, like most elements carbon has several isotopes. It is the number of protons (atomic number Z) which defines a specific element, and so carbon-12 and carbon-13 are still distinct as the element carbon, as they each have 6 protons (atomic number Z = 6). Both the 12C and 13C isotopes also still have the same electronic configuration, with 6 electrons in total, meaning that they are identical in how they react chemically. The reason for the categorisation as isotopes of carbon is because their atomic mass is different, with carbon-12 possessing 6 neutrons and carbon-13 possessing 7 neutrons. 3. For each of the following species, give a full electronic configuration in the format 1s2, 2s2, a) ...read more.

Middle

We can predict that the molecular geometry of NCl3 will be trigonal planar. b. H2S ? Hydrogen sulphide (Sulphane). From the Lewis structure of hydrogen sulphide we can see that again, there are four pairs of electrons around the central sulphur atom, only this time there are two loan pairs present. This means that the hydrogen-sulphur bonds assume two points of a tetrahedron but are even further compressed because of the two loan pair, resulting angular in a (bent) molecular geometry. c. CCl4 ? Carbon tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane). Here the central carbon is using all four of its valence electrons to bond with chlorine atoms. As there are no loan pair electrons carbon tetrachloride will have a tetrahedral shape with bond angles of 109.5o. 5. Use your knowledge of bonding and intermolecular forces to explain the following observations: a. Lithium iodide is a solid at room temperature. The bonds which form between lithium and iodine are mostly ionic, arising from the electrostatic attraction between the positive lithium cation and the negative iodine anion. As lithium?s charge density (charge to volume ratio) is high the bonds do exhibit some covalent characteristics, such as dissolving in organic solvents. ...read more.

Conclusion

As this minimises the repulsive force between the bonds. Ethane which is more complex should be considered as two trigonal planar molecules joined double bond in the middle. This gives bond angles of 120o around each carbon atom. With molecules such as H2O where the central oxygen atom has two loan pairs in its valence shell, the shape of the molecule is affected. Instead of a linear geometry like CO2, the molecular orbital forms a tetrahedron, including the bond electrons and loan pairs. As such the hydrogen-oxygen bonds take and angular (bent) geometry. However due to loan pair electrons exerting a greater repulsive force than bonded ones, the bond angle is not 109.5o, but 104.5o as a result of the compression this causes. VSEPR theory also works on polyatomic ions, such as ammonium (NH4+). This is because the bonds between the nitrogen and hydrogen atoms are covalent, thus have a fixed position and angle. In the ammonium ion the central nitrogen has a full octet, with all four electron pairs involved in a bond. Even though one of the covalent bonds is dative the repulsion it exerts on the other bond is the same as a single or double bond; so has no effect on the geometry. This means four equal pairs, giving a tetrahedral geometry with 109.5o bond angels. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Experiment investigating hydrogen bonding in different chemicals.

    5 star(s)

    Contact with the eyes can cause considerable irritation. Cyclohexane is very flammable. It must not be flushed down a sink as it is both an environmental hazard and a serious fire risk. Ethyl ethanoate is highly flammable. Chloroform is toxic.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Chemical Bonding and CFCs. There are three main types of chemical bonds.

    3 star(s)

    Polarization means distortion of electron cloud in the anion. As the electron cloud is distorted and partially returned to the cation, the electron transfer is incomplete, and the ionic bond formed is having certain covalent character (i.e, there is a certain degreed of electron sharing instead of having a total transfer of electrons).

  1. Peer reviewed

    Chemical Bonding

    3 star(s)

    The main examples this structure are diamond and graphite which are both made only from carbon atoms. In diamonds each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds in a very rigid covalent structure and graphite where each carbon atom only forms covalent bonds, creating layers which are free to slide over each other, and leaving free electrons.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between peroxydisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

    my hands before leaving the lab, wearing appropriate clothing and removing all jewellery, disposing of chemicals in a designated place and not returning unused chemicals to their original containers, to prevents contamination. In this investigation, many substances are irritant to the skin and eyes.

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    53 311 53 310 316 44 314 43 314.5 45 314 321 32 323 31 322 24 323 29 323 (Table 3.4.2) 3.5 - Analysis of Results of Varying the Concentration of the Reactants From varying the concentration of each reactant in turn, I can determine the order of the

  2. Chemical Structure and Bonding

    The covalent bonds that exist between the atoms are very strong, and as a result these substances are hard, with high melting and boiling points. Giant covalent molecules generally do not conduct electricity, with the exception of graphite, and are insoluble in water.

  1. How does the temperature of water affect the amount of dissolved oxygen it contains?

    The Mn(SO4)2 then converts the iodide ion (I-) to iodine (I2). Under controlled conditions, the amount of sodium thiosulfate titrated, is equivalent to the amount of dissolved oxygen present in the sample. REAGENTS: 1. Manganese sulfate solution * 2. Alkaline potassium iodidesodium solution * 3.

  2. Purification of aluminium from Bauxite

    Why both metals require different method to be extracted Extracting aluminium and iron cannot be done the same way because the extraction depends on their reactivity. Aluminium just like all the most reactive metals is often extracted using electrolysis while iron which is less reactive than aluminium is extracted by

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work