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Australia and Nepal - Worlds Apart - An examination of present and possible future energy consumption patterns in Australia and Nepal.

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Introduction

AUSTRALIA AND NEPAL - WORLDS APART AN EXAMINATION OF PRESENT AND POSSIBLE FUTURE ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERNS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEPAL Energy consumption patterns worldwide vary according to the stage of development of the country, population size, climate (geographical location of the country) and availability of energy resources. Such consumption patterns include the total amount of consumption, the ways in which the energy is used as a country and on a per capita basis, and the source of the energy. While MEDCs have an overall higher consumption than LEDCs, when LEDCs become increasingly industrialised and develop as the MEDCs did, their consumption becomes much higher because of the generally higher population base in LEDC's. Australia, an MEDC, has a high domestic consumption of 16.2GJ1 per capita per annum, whereas Nepal, an example of an LEDC, only consumes less than 1GJ2 of commercial energy (that is, energy from coal, petrol and gas - including domestic consumption) per capita per annum. Australia possesses reserves of natural gas, black and brown, uranium, and crude oil, and is 'climatically well placed'3 to exploit renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity, solar power and wind power. The location of coal and gas reserves in Australia is illustrated in the map below, Figure 1. Figure 1: Map of Australia showing where coal and gas are located. Indeed, Australia is rich in its energy resources, and undeniably this is reflected in consumption. Although it is acknowledged that some parts of Australia do not have access to electricity, Australians are overall the 6th largest domestic energy consumers (per capita) ...read more.

Middle

Product design in the future will improve on energy efficiency, with the government reinforcing initiatives for star-ratings and other programs8. Nepal's energy consumption per capita is one of the lowest in the world, with an estimate of 12GJ/capita/annum9, or 342.7 kg of oil equivalent/capita/annum10, and it has the lowest per capita commercial energy utilisation in the world of 1GJ/annum. Nepal's per capita commercial energy consumption of 30 kg of oil equivalent11 is also very low in comparison to other countries in the sub-region. This low consumption is a direct reflection of the low standard of living and low level of economic development within the country. The World Bank12 estimated that 51% of the total population lives under absolute poverty with incomes of less than a dollar a day13. Over 86%14 of the total population and 44%15 of those in poverty live in rural areas, so traditional energy sources account for approximately 90% of the total energy consumption between the years 1984 and 2001. This is shown in Figure 7. Modern forms of energy such as electricity, kerosene and diesel are new or yet to be introduced to some rural areas16. Figure 7: Percentage of energy from Traditional and Commercial sources in 1984/5 and 2000/1 Energy source 1984/5 (%) 2000/1 (%) Traditional sources (Fuelwood, agricultural waste and animal dung) 95 86 Commercial Energy (coal, petroleum and electricity) 5 13.6 Renewable energy - 0.4 Source: Dhungel, Kamal Raj. ...read more.

Conclusion

6 State of the Environment Advisory Council. 1996. State of the environment. CSIRO Publishing. Collingwood, Australia. 7 Chapter 4 of Agenda 21 8 Ibid. 9 According to the Water and Energy Commission - cited from Dhungel, Kamal Raj. 2003. "Energy situation in Nepal". The Telegraph Weekly. Wednesday 26 March 2003. Available world wide web at http://www.nepanews.com.np. 3/03/04. 10 The World Guide. 2003. The World Guide 2003/2004. New Internationalist Publications Ltd. UK. 11 Amatnya, VB; Shrestha, G.R. op.cit. 12 World Bank 2000/2001 13 Dhungel, Kamal Raj. Op.cit 14 Ibid. 15 Ministry of Population and Environment. 2003. Summary. [on-line]. Available world wide web at http://www.mope.gov.np/environment/pdf/state/summary.pdf. 3/03/04. 16 Amatnya, VB; Shrestha, G.R. op.cit 17 Amatnya, VB; Shrestha, G.R. 1995. "Renewable Technologies, A Brighter Future". Chapter 4 - "Review on Policies and Their Implications in Renewable Energy technologies in Nepal" - Available world wide web at http://www.panasia.org.sg. 3/03/04. 18 Ibid. 19 According to the Economic Survey MOF/HMG 2001 - cited from Dhungel, Kamal Raj. 2003. "Energy situation in Nepal". The Telegraph Weekly. Wednesday 26 March 2003. Available world wide web at http://www.nepanews.com.np. 3/03/04. 20 Ministry of Population and Environment. 2003. Summary. [on-line]. Available world wide web at http://www.mope.gov.np/environment/pdf/state/summary.pdf. 3/03/04. 21 Amatnya, VB; Shrestha, G.R. 1995. "Renewable Technologies, A Brighter Future". Chapter 4 - "Review on Policies and Their Implications in Renewable Energy technologies in Nepal" - Available world wide web at http://www.panasia.org.sg. 3/03/04. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid. 24 Ministry of Population and Environment. 2003. Summary. [on-line]. Available world wide web at http://www.mope.gov.np/environment/pdf/state/summary.pdf. 3/03/04. 25 Amatnya, VB; Shrestha, G.R. op.cit. 26 WECS 1994 - cited from Amatnya, VB; Shrestha, G.R. op.cit. ...read more.

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