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Biology coursework on enzymes.

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Introduction

Biology coursework on enzymes Background Knowledge Enzymes are biological catalysts made up from protein. As we know, catalysts are substances that speed up the rate of a reaction without itself being used up. An enzyme has an active site, which has a unique shape into which only a substrate of the exact same unique shape can fit. When this substrate fits into the active site it forms an enzyme-substrate complex: Enzymes can be denatured at certain conditions. These conditions are high temperatures and extreme levels of pH. The bonds that hold enzymes together are quite weak and so are easily broken by the above conditions. When these bonds are broken the enzyme, along with the active site, is deformed, thus deactivating the enzyme. This is know as a denatured enzyme: Enzyme activity is affected by a number of factors including: The Effect of Enzyme Concentration: The rate of reaction is directly proportional to the enzyme concentration when the substrate is in excess. ...read more.

Middle

This will denature the enzyme, thus deactivating the active site. As enzymes normally exist within cells where the pH is 7, the most favourable pH is obviously 7. A pH significantly higher or lower than 7 will kill the cells. Salt concentration: Each enzyme has an optimal salt concentration. Changes in the salt concentration may also denature enzymes. Lock - Key Mechanism: The active site on the enzyme attaches to a substrate molecule (such as a disaccharide) forming an enzyme-substrate complex. While attached to the substrate, the enzyme causes a weakening of certain chemical bonds in the substrate molecule, resulting in a breakdown (hydrolysis) of the substrate into two smaller product molecules (such as two monosaccharides). The enzyme is unaltered during the reaction and is free to catalyze the breakdown of another substrate molecule. If the active site on the enzyme is blocked by a poison molecule, this vital hydrolysis reaction cannot occur. Lock - Key diagram Enzymes are substances present in the cell in small amounts that function to speed up or catalyze chemical reactions. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are many more enzymes in humans and animals but those are the main ones that we use. Amylase is produced in our mouths its in out saliva; this helps us digest food when we start chewing. Lipase is used to digest fats, protease is used to digest proteins and carbohydrase is used to digest carbohydrates. But enzymes are also important for Circulation - Enzymes are vitally important in preventing excessive blood clotting and reducing the "stickiness" of the platelets and red blood cells. Trypsin and chymotrypsin are used in fibinolysis, a process that dissolves blood clots. Enzymes help remove metabolic waste and generally improve circulation. Inflammation - Regardless of the reason for inflammation, enzymes are essential for tissue repair. They reduce swelling and pain, decrease the duration or inflammatory process and help speed up the recovery rate. These effects are also important in the treatment of injuries. Other benefits - There are many other uses for enzymes, including autoimmune conditions, arthritis, chronic diseases, pre and post-surgery and multiple sclerosis. Gurdeep Singh Malhi 11GK ...read more.

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