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biology differences in animal and plant cells

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Introduction

Sarah Huckerby 30059987 Di Paul Biology Group 1 Contrasting the structure of plant and animal cells Modern cell theory states that all living matter is composed of cells and they arise from other cells. They contain hereditary information of the organisms of which they are a part; the cell is the basic unit of all living matter. Cell are made up of Protoplasm, which is a granular substance resembling the white of an egg, the cell membrane, inorganic salts, carbohydrates for energy, Lipids which are fats and nitrogenous substances, amino acids which are obtained from proteins (Moth.E 2003) Organisms mostly consist of Eukaryotic cells, which contain a true nucleus and also contain other organelles which are sub-cellular, permanent structures that carry out particular functions in the cell. Plant and animals are composed of cells that have many similarities. All plant and animal cells have a nucleus surrounded by Cytoplasm bound by a cell membrane, cytoplasm is the material inside the cell but outside the nucleus, it contains different structures and substances. It is the "brain" of the cell and is contained within the nuclear membrane (which insures that the interior of the nucleus is isolated from the cells cytoplasm allowing two different environments to be maintained,)it contains pairs of chromosomes each carrying hereditary DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) ...read more.

Middle

The smooth E.R allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes. Plant and animal cells also contain Ribosomes these produce proteins needed for growth and repair of the cell. Each ribosome is built from two sub-units each having its own mix of ribosomal RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins. Ribosomes are built with RNA from the nucleolus and are made in the nucleus itself, they function in protein synthesis, as they move along messenger RNA, amino acids are joined in order originally dictated by DNA. Plant and animal cells also contain Golgi apparatus, they secrete carbohydrates and combine them within the protein in order to send them to other parts of the cell or out of the cell, and they are stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae) the stack of larger vesicles is surrounded by numerous smaller vesicles containing macromolecules. Plant and animal cells also have many differences; plant cells are larger and have a regular shape, whereas animal cells are usually smaller and irregular. In animal cells there is no cell wall present as it is not needed because the animal cells are smaller it is needed in a plant as the plant cell is larger. ...read more.

Conclusion

They are present in animal cells to keep the cell healthy as they play a part in defence of our bodies defence system. Centrioles are only found in animal cells, in the animal cell they are needed to make cilia (tiny hair like projections for example in the air passages) they keep certain passages like the wind pipe passages clear. In plant cells centrioles are not needed as cilia are not not present in the plant cell. Between the walls of a plant cell, middle lamella is present and joins cell walls of adjacent cells (Toole.G & Toole.S 1999) They are joined by intercellular cement. In animal cells they are not present as the middle Lamella holds plants cells together, and acts as demarcation between one cell and the next. Sarah Huckerby biology Di paul group 1 Plant and animal cells have many similarities. However there are differences. The plant cell is much larger and has a regular shape animal cells have their own ways of storing and producing secretions. Some plant cells contain chlorophyll and give us the green colour in most plants, but animal cells never contain chlorophyll. That even with a lot of differences and similarities, both types of cell are there to define life and reproduce further. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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3 star(s)

*** This essay adequately describes cell structure in some paragraphs but does not always manage to highlight the key differences and similarities between plant and animal cells, which are the focus of the essay title.
The four SKILL AREAS which are usually marked for in a biology essay are: scientific content, breadth of knowledge, relevance and quality of language.
To improve:
Scientific content:
The essay should cover all the main areas relevant to the topic and must include discussion of each area with suitable examples. This essay has a title of " Contrasting plant and animal cells" so most of the material should be comparing and contrasting plant and animal cells. The main problem with this essay is that large sections are paragraphs about cell ultrastructure and do not attempt to highlight key similarities and differences. Referring back to the title is a good way to ensure that the essay stays focused. The inclusion of a brief plan is helpful so that the essay has a logical structure eg. listing all the key structural similarities first and then the differences. The essay should only contain very few factual errors and some are present in this essay. The writer should take care not to generalize as it easy to overstate the case and present incorrect information.
Breath of knowledge:
A well balanced account, making reference to most areas that might be realistically covered in an A-level course of study but with some factual errors.
Relevance:
All material presented is clearly relevant to the title but could have been presented in a way that referred back to the title a little more.
Quality of Written Communication:
Most of the key biological terms were used correctly but the sentence construction was poor in some cases. The essay would be improved if the student did not try to write long, interlinked sentences that did not follow on correctly. The construction of shorter, sharper sentences containing one clear statement of fact would make this more creditworthy.

Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 29/05/2013

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