• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Biology Reseach Project - Is Hormone Replacement Therapy safe?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Is hormone replacement therapy good for you? Menopause affects most women, with its peak occurring during the 50-60's. This is the time that the menstrual cycle ceases and symptoms indicating hormonal imbalance start to occur; including hot flushes, fainting etc. To combat these symptoms many women are entitled to turn to the use of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). HRT is the use of synthetic hormones which is aimed to correct any hormonal imbalance which women may experience and reduce any persistent symptoms. However with its risks HRT also has some potential hazards on women. There is the issue to whether HRT provides more risks than benefits. It is known that HRT has a good effect on women's health in terms of enabling them to continue healthy lives after menopause; HRT is also known to cut down osteoporosis. However there are a wide range of hazards that it imposes especially with prolonged use, such as being the greatest contributing risk factor for the development of many breast cancers. HRT has also been identified as a risk factor for cardiac events and heart attacks; this is already showing that the potential hazards already weigh up to more than the benefits. Figure 1 There are many studies which indicate that HRT has a hazardous effect on women. These studies range between different areas of medicine. ...read more.

Middle

The actual risk of using HRT is considered quite low, however the way this risk is perceived can affect the range of alternative treatments which are available to women. While many believe HRT should be stopped, there is also a vast majority who feel that HRT provides more benefits than risks, and that risks are too small anyway (e.g. video 10 ). Who do we believe? Raloxifene is a nonsteroidal compound, which is known not to increase the risk of endometrial cancer, and also may decrease the risk of breast cancer as data positively shows that the link between cancer and this drug is very little. Overall it can be said that Raloxifene has no associated problems which HRT does. Its role in reducing breast cancer cases can be viewed in Figure 1, where it can be seen a huge difference on its impact on breast cancer11 compared with HRT. Raloxifene alleviates hot flushes and night sweats as well as being good at maintaining strong bones and is prescribed to many to prevent osteoporosis. Raloxifene does have implications to its patients as well: Raloxifene is a substance which has many similarities to HRT because their chemical structures are alike. Due to this Raloxifene holds; a high risk of venous thromobolism and death from stroke. Implications of treatment An economic implication of the use of a medically prescribed drug such as Raloxifene can be very expensive to provide. ...read more.

Conclusion

http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/113.full (visited 04/03/2011) The research from this article has been proven by the Journal of the American College of Cardiology20 which is a highly reliable source which conducts and produces a lot of self-conducted research which is globally applauded for its research into the different fields of cardiology. We can also conclude that the source is reliable due to its research being in agreement with other organisations. The source is reliable as the medical assertions made by it are made by professionals who have sufficient knowledge of the sector in order to make a valid statement; also the studies are conducted in order to reflect population as a whole. The article itself has been cited in other articles (e.g.21). This means that they credit the information and consider it valid themselves. 1 http://ezinearticles.com/?Benefits-and-Hazards-of-Hormone-Replacement-Therapy-(HRT)&id=3939659 2 Say no to cancer by Patrick Holford Chapter 8 page 51-65. First Published in 1999 by Judy Piaktus publishers Ltd. ISBN 0 7499 1953 1 3 http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/hormonetherapy/a/hrtbrstcncrrisk.htm 4 http://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c5307.full (visited 04/03/2011) 5 http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/10/19/study-hrt-increases-breast-cancer-death-risk/ (visited 04/03/2011) 6 http://www.doctorsofusc.com/condition/document/31414 (visited 03/03/2011) 7 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/3108931/HRT-can-increase-some-womens-risk-of-heart-attack-by-a-quarter.html 8 http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/113.full (visited 04/03/2011) 9 http://www.menopausematters.co.uk/risks.php 10 http://www.articlesbase.com/videos/5min/229369525. An interview with Dr. William Creasman 11 http://www.natural-hormones.net/estrogen/research/new-therapies-used-estrogen-deficiency-postmenopausal-women.htm 12 http://www.ukmi.nhs.uk/NewMaterial/html/docs/raloxifene.pdf 13 http://www.dslrf.org/searchresults.asp?search=dcis 14 http://www.patient.co.uk/medicine/Strontium-ranelate.htm 15 http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Menopause-Alternatives-to-HRT.htm 16 http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/SAC%20Paper%206%20Alternatives%20to%20HRT.pdf 17 http://www.pabreastcancer.org/template/userfiles/files/Newsletter/PinkLink/2006%2005%20May.pdf 18 European Society of Cardiology (2008, October 2). Hormone Replacement Therapy And Heart Attack Risk: Danish Study Provides New Information. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 8, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/10/081001093504.htm 19 http://www.menopausematters.co.uk/risks.php 20 http://content.onlinejacc.org/cgi/content/long/38/1/1 (visited 04/03/2011) 21 http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/113.full (visited 04/03/2011) ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    Undergoing each Relevant Stage in the Process of Mitotic Nuclear Division Identification of Source The cellular stages of Mitosis: Source of Results Student Number Identifier Number of cells observed undergoing Prophase Number of cells observed undergoing Metaphase Number of cells observed undergoing Anaphase Number of cells observed undergoing Telophase J.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_causes_eating_disorders_000049_3.htm Symptoms of eating disorders A person who has several of the following signs may be developing or has already developed an eating disorder: Anorexia: The individual: - Has lost a great deal of weight in a short period of time - Continues to diet, although bone-thin - Reaches diet

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Problem of Endangerment in Siberian Tigers

    3 star(s)

    Alternative Solutions: Conservations The problem for Siberian tigers facilitated in zoos is that the cost is too much for upkeep of the subspecies. A solution for this problem is Siberian tiger conservations. Siberian tiger conservations are large parks that contain few Siberian tigers maintaining their health while collecting research.

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    Many disabled people internalise the negative message that all disabled people's problems stem from not having 'normal' bodies. Disabled people can also feel that their disability automatically prevents them from participating in social activities. This internalised oppression can make disabled people less likely to challenge their exclusion from mainstream society.

  1. Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer.

    and to show directly that these genes can induce cancerous growth in cultured cells. The feat was accomplished by attaching to the cellular genes a viral "promoter," a DNA-encoded signal that helps to regulate the expression of a nearby gene.

  2. Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

    It is unadvisable to work alone on the marsh, groups should stick together to prevent injury to their companions, there are hidden creeks that can cause serious injuries to the ankle or knee. In case of injury one member can rush back to get help while another stays behind with the injured.

  1. HSC maintaining a balance notes

    Factors separated from one another when sex cells formed - At fertilisation the offspring received one factor from each parent randomly - Characteristics either recessive or dominant 2. b) Reasons for Success - Kept accurate records - Studied traits that were easy to distinguish - Controlled pollination process carefully -

  2. A study into the effectiveness of Hydroxycarbamide (Hydroxyurea) in treating the complications caused by ...

    Many different types of haemoglobin (Hb) exist. The most common ones are HbA, HbA2, HbF, HbS, HbC, Hb H, and Hb M. Healthy adults only have significant levels of HbA and HbA2. Some people may also have small amounts of HbF (which is the main type of haemoglobin in an unborn baby's body).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work