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AS and A Level: Molecules & Cells

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  1. Permeability of Cell Membrane in Beetroot Cells

    can be main factors affecting this. An excessive pH range (very acidic or very alkaline solution) could damage the ionic bonds in the proteins present in the membrane, therefore causing the shape of the protein to change preventing the membrane from functioning properly. Chemicals such as organic solvents e.g. ethanol, cause the membrane to dissolve effectively killing the cell as everything in the cell is released this is because the molecule is turned inside out therefore exposing the hydrophobic interactions which will readily dissolve in them.

    • Word count: 3230
  2. To investigate the factors of the enzyme hydrogen peroxidase (catalase)

    The commonest secondary structure is a right-handed spiral shape, called an a-helix' Microsoft Encarta, 1997, describes proteins as 'any of a large number of organic compounds that make up living organisms and are essential to their functioning... Whether found in humans or in single celled bacteria, proteins are composed of units of about 20 different amino acids, which, in turn are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. In a protein molecule these acids form peptide bonds - bonds between amino and carboxyl (COOH)

    • Word count: 3789
  3. Research project. Type 1 diabetes, is there a solution?

    Why is this problem? Diabetes is known to be the fifth most common cause of death in the world, and than one in ten (11.6 per cent) deaths among 20 to 79-year-olds in England can be due to diabetes, additionally reports from What is Diabetes type 1? Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune disease (this is when the immune system is functioning abnormally normally against substances and tissues within the body). This takes place when Beta cells (which are known to metabolize and control blood sugar levels/glucose within the blood)

    • Word count: 3144

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