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AS and A Level: Molecules & Cells

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  1. The similarities and difference between cardiac muscle tissue and skeletal muscle tissue.

    The myosin heads are commonly known as the cross bridges. The characteristics of them is that it has ATP which binds the site to fit all the molecules and it also has a hinge at the point when it can pivot which causes the muscles to contract. The structure of the cardiac muscle has a branch like structure.

    • Word count: 483
  2. Blood Smear Tests

    Hospital apparatus (romanowski) 1. Solution A Fixing solution Methanol 2. Solution B Acid dye Eosin 3. Solution C Basic dye Methylene blue 4. Solution D Buffer pH 6.8 phosphate buffer 5. Slide for substances to be tested on 6. Needle 7. Microscope Standard Procedure 1. Take a needle and use it to take a sample of blood from the patients? finger 1. Prepare the blood smear and air dry 2. Fix by immersing in Solution A for 30 seconds 3. Transfer, without rinsing or drying to Solution B and stain for 15-30 seconds. Gently agitate during this period 4.

    • Word count: 880
  3. Apoptosis and Cancer

    Microphages take care of the failing cell and leave no traces. Because this process so effectively wipes out the cell, it cannot cause any damage within the body. Apoptosis also plays a role in the development of fetuses and some other bodily processes. Sometimes the wrong cells go through apoptosis, or a cell that should go through apoptosis does not. The body sends messages to the cells telling them whether they should keep living or die.

    • Word count: 406
  4. Principals and Limitations of Electron Microscopy

    Transmission Electron Microscopes--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Transmission Electron Microscope or TEM was invented over 70 years ago. These electron microscopes have a higher magnification as well as a better resolution than a light microscope which is limited to a resolution of 200nm whereas the TEM is about 0.1nm. The use of TEM have helped us to understand the structure and function of cells, tissues, organelles, microorganisms and molecules. TEMs work by using a tungsten filament to produce an electron beam in a vacuum chamber. The emitted electrons are accelerated through an electromagnetic field that also narrowly focuses the beam.

    • Word count: 1403
  5. Experiment 3 : Identification Of Food Constituents In Milk

    Fats supply the body with a concentrated source of energy. Milk fat acts as a solvent for the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and also supplies essential fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic). The most important fatty acids found in milk triglycerides are shown below. Fatty acids are esterified with glycerol as follows: The main protein constituent found in milk is casein. Casein is easily separated from milk, either by acid precipitation or by adding rennin. Casein is dispersed in milk in the form of micelles. The micelles are stabilised by the ?-casein.

    • Word count: 2107

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