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Blood and The Immune System.

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Blood By Gary Jones Components of the blood. Plasma 55% A straw coloured solution, that is responsible for transporting various substances around the body. These include Glucose, Mineral ions, Proteins and Hormones. Cells 45% ( listed below) Erythrocytes ( red blood cells) These are the most numerous of the cells in the blood. In adult blood there are 5 000, 000 per mm3. They transport the oxygen and the carbon dioxide, and contribute to the buffering capacity of the blood. They are red in colour due to the haemoglobin pigment that they contain. Platelets ( Thrombocytes) These are fragments of cells that are involved in the clotting of the blood. Neutrophils ( White blood cells) These are the most abundant of the leucocytes. They have a very short life span of 12 to 72 hours. They contain non-staining granules, and are responsible for the phagocytosis of micro-organisms. They migrate from the blood to the tissues, and are so active in phagocytosis that they are replaced at the rate of about 100, 000, 000, 000 per day. Monocytes These are the largest of the leucocytes. They are agranulocytes and have a large bean shaped nucleus. They only spend 2 to 3 days in the blood, and then they move to the tissues where they mature into phagocytic macrophages. Lymphocytes These make up approximately 30% of the circulating leucocytes. They are developed in the bone marrow, but continue to develop in the lymph nodes, the thymus gland, and the spleen. ...read more.


In the thymus, the immature lymphocytes develop into T lymphocytes, also knows as T cells. The T stands for thymus derived. The B lymphocytes are responsible for the production of the blood-serum components called immunoglobulin. The T lymphocytes are responsible for attacking and killing antigens directly. Both the T and the B lymphocytes have the ability to remember previous exposure to a specific antigen, so that if the same antigen enters the body the T and B lymphocytes can take faster and better action against it. There are many disorders that disrupt the immune system's operations. The most serious are the disorders called immunodeficiency diseases, such as AIDS. These diseases can lead to death. Immunodeficiency diseases are among the most severe disorders of the immune system. People afflicted with such conditions lack some basic feature or function of their immune system. As a result, their immune system fails to respond adequately to harmful invaders. For this reason, people with immune deficiency diseases suffer from different kinds of illness. Allergies are mistaken and harmful responses of the body's immune system to substances that are harmless to most people. The substances that provoke an Allergic reaction, are called allergens. They include pollen, dust, and Feathers. Among the common allergic diseases are asthma, eczema, which is an Itchy red swelling of the skin, hay fever, and hives. If lymphocytes encounter an antigen trapped by the antigen-presenting cells of the lymphoid organs, lymphocytes with receptors specific to that Antigen stop their migration and settle to mount an immune response locally. ...read more.


Other minerals essential for immune function include magnesium, potassium, manganese, sodium, copper and chromium. Amino acids Argine, when taken with synergistic cofactors such as vitamin B, stimulates the pituitary to secrete growth hormone, a vital immune regulator. Argine also enlarges the thymus gland (which produced T-cells), greatly enhances the body's healing powers and helps prevent cancer. Other immune-boosting amino acids include ornithine, cysteine, taurine, methionine, and glutathione. Essential fatty acids These nutrients, including omega-3 fish oils, oleic acid and caprylic acid, provide the best protection against arteriosclerosis and other forms of heart disease. Since few people get adequate levels of these essential nutrients from their food (as clearly evidenced by the fact that heart disease now accounts for 53 per cent of all deaths in the UK), supplemental sources are required. Fatty acids are also essential elements in white blood cells, antibodies, and brain cells. Enzymes Since modern diets consist primarily of cooked and processed foods, the body must divert much of its enzyme power to the stomach and duodenum for digestive duty, thereby sharply reducing the availability of enzymes for antioxidant activity and other immune functions. When taken on an empty stomach, enzyme supplements go to work digesting microbes, pre-cancerous cells, toxins, pus, mucus, and other disease causing agents. Lacto bacteria Supplemental sources of lacto bacteria such as acidolpholis, bifidus, and fermented cabbage juice replenish the colonies of "friendly" bacteria in the intestinal tract. Lacto bacteria are the body's only natural defence against Candida and other yeast infections, which have powerful immunosuppressive properties. They also facilitate rapid elimination of toxic digestive wastes and improve assimilation of essential nutrients from food. ...read more.

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