• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Calcium carbonate reacts with strong acids such as Hydrochloric acid to give off carbon dioxide and water.

Extracts from this document...


By Balal Tariq Calcium carbonate reacts with strong acids such as Hydrochloric acid to give off carbon dioxide and water. CaCo3 (s) + 2Hcl (aq) --> CaCl2 (aq) + H?O (l) + CO2 (g) Independent variable - Temperature of Hydrochloric acid. Dependent variable - Time taken to collect 100cm� of carbon dioxide gas, from different temperatures of Hydrochloric acid. Controlled variables - 1. Concentration of hydrochloric acid (two molar). 2. Surface area of calcium carbonate chips (small). 3. Amount of hydrochloric acid (25cm�). Hypothesis I predict that as the temperature of the hydrochloric acid will increase, the rate of reaction will increase and the atoms in the hydrochloric acid will be more energetically favourable. The atoms will travel faster with energy, causing more collisions and the rate of carbon dioxide gas production will also increase. Justification and scientific backup The higher the temperature, the faster the reaction rate there will be. This is due to the kinetic theory. The more heat that is given to matter, the faster the particles will move. This happens in the acid, so the faster the particles move, the faster the reaction rate due to more collisions between the marble chips and the acid. In gases and liquids, particles are in constant motion. Millions upon millions of collisions occur every second. Bonds between the atoms must be broken before new molecules can be made. ...read more.


The preliminary showed that the experiment worked. The timeframe is not too long or short and it can be easily measured. The range is okay, but I must be careful to not go over 60�C as I spotted some hydrochloric acid vapours, anything over 60�C would be dangerous. Experiment method 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in figure two. 2. Put 25cm� of hydrochloric acid (two molar) into a 100cm� graduated cylinder. 3. After doing this pour the hydrochloric acid into the Buchner flask and take the temperature using the thermometer, the temperature should be approximately under room temp of 20�C for your first result. 4. Weigh two grams of calcium carbonate chips on the 0.1 weighing scale. Use a watch glass so it easier to put the chips into the Buchner flask afterwards and when weighing place the watch glass on the scale and then reset the scale so that the weight of the watch glass isn't taken. 5. Start to add the calcium carbonate chips into the Buchner flask and at the same time start the stop clock and put the bung into the Buchner flask to prevent carbon dioxide escaping. 6. Stop the clock when you have collected 100cm� of carbon dioxide gas in the syringe. 7. Record your results in a suitable. 8. Repeat steps one to seven for 30�C, 40�C, 50�C and 60�C of hydrochloric acid but this time use a Bunsen burner to heat up the acid. ...read more.


However the 60�C time of 23.38 seconds was a slight anomalous result perhaps due to the acid temperature not being accurate enough because the acid was heated by the Bunsen burner meaning that the temperatures were not constant and you can observe this on the average results graph. The one over time graph (figure four) shows the rate of the reaction between the calcium carbonate chips and the hydrochloric acid and if you observe the graph you can see that the 60�C time again is an anomalous result. Therefore my conclusion is that the white cliffs on the Antrim coastline are eroded less in the winter due to the acids being low in temperature in the rain even though there is more rain, whereas in the summer the acids in the rain are warmer causing the white cliffs to erode at a faster rate than in winter. Evaluation The experiment worked well even though I had one anomalous result. To improve the experiment and to obtain better results, the surface area of the marble chips could be decreased and instead of using small calcium carbonate chips, powdered calcium carbonate chips could be used to make the surface area even more accurate. Therefore the hydrochloric acid that would be used with the powdered calcium carbonate chips would have to be weaker because the reaction would occur too fast. Also instead of using a Bunsen burner, a water bath could be used instead to keep the temperature constant and to obtain more accurate results. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    to react with limiting agents completely. 8. Should we measure the volume of acid with a measuring cylinder? Why? The measuring cylinder should not be used to measure the volume of acid. This is because the heat absorbed by the acid must be counted when calculating the heat change of the reaction.

  2. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    I will be starting with 0.5 molar acid. This is because, I thought 0.5 molar would produce a sufficient enough reaction and the difference can be seen quite clearly. In the next experiment I will use 1 molar acid. As you can tell that is a difference of 0.5 molar.

  1. Determination of the Heat of Formation of Calcium Carbonate

    26.5 Temperature rise / 0C 1 Assume that the density of the solution is the same as that of water, i.e. 1 g cm-3 Mass of the hydrochloric acid = 100 cm3 ? 1 g cm-3 = 100 g = 0.1 kg Heat given out = 0.1?

  2. To find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its ...

    I have decided to use a gas syringe to measure the amount of gas produced. I think that the gas syringe will give me more accurate results than the measuring cylinder filled with water or the top pan balance. I think that the gas syringe is the easiest and most accurate way of getting my results.

  1. Identification of amino acids by chromatography.

    I would make sure that I was wearing a strong pair of plastic gloves at all times and that I was only holding the top of the paper where the paperclips were inserted. This would avoid the problem of irrelevant chemicals contaminating the results.

  2. Antacid Lab. Are name brand antacids better than generic brand antacids to neutralize ...

    I think this time around the group may have measured 1g but added too much water that may have lengthened the process and the number of drops of stomach acid. In addition, the number of drops may have been discounted or we may have been counting too fast that we counted too many drops.

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    To do this, I will first work out the number of moles of the substance I require in my solution: (Equation 2.3.1) where the concentration is measured in mol dm-3 (M) and volume is measured in cm3. To find the mass of solution required for this number of moles I will use: (Equation 2.3.2)

  2. How does the temperature of water affect the amount of dissolved oxygen it contains?

    sulfate solution followed by 1ml of alkali-iodide solution to the heat treated water. Be sure to use separate droppers for each solution so you don?t contaminate anything. 9. Immediately re-stopper to reduce mixing with air. 10. Invert the flask a few times.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work