• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cancer is a disease in which cells grow out of control and invade, erode, and destroy normal tissue.

Extracts from this document...


Cancer Cancer is a disease in which cells grow out of control and invade, erode, and destroy normal tissue. Damaged genes cause this development of cancer. These damaged genes are often a factor caused by such things such as the environment, and can be influenced by inherited factors. As the very early damaged cells divide they can evolve into a malignant cell population, and lose the control mechanism that govern normal cell division. These malignant cells can then go on to form solid tumours that start to destroy normal tissue. These can then spread to other parts of the body by releasing these tumour cells. Once these cancer cells spread, they grow in other parts of the body and then form new cancers. If this cancer spreads to take over a part of the body that performs an essential function, this can kill you. ...read more.


These are known as mutagens. These carcinogens can cause errors, duplication or rearrangement in DNA sequences that contribute to the progression of cancer. An example of a carcinogen is tobacco. Tobacco smoke contains at least twenty carcinogens, which are known to cause lung cancer. Age can be a factor when asked what causes cancer. This is because cancer becomes more common as we get older. 85% of cancers are diagnosed in patients over fifty-five. This is because as we get older we become more susceptible to some types of carcinogens. Age is also a cause as it takes a long time for a cell to become cancerous, as there has to be a number of changes to the genes within a cell, before it turns into a cancerous cell. Therefore the longer we live; the more time there is for us to become susceptible to these mistakes in our genes. Our genetics are also another cause of cancer. ...read more.


However, the effect of our diet on the actual risk of cancer is not actually fully known. This is because as time changes, new information's found out to show that some parts of a diet can be classed as a carcinogen. An example of this is some years ago saccharin claimed to be a carcinogen, but now is said not to be as dangerous as we expected. Lastly our views on sun exposure are a known cause for non- melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. Melanomas one of the most deadly skin cancers, and are located in the upper part of the skin. These start commonly to form a mole, which then turn to become cancerous. These types of skin cancers are associated with ultraviolet waves caused by sunlight. This is most common in people who are predisposed to sunburn rather than tan. However, even though this predisposition to ultraviolet rays has been known to cause skin cancer, people still do not take notice of this warning. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    Phase of Mitosis Predicted Ratio Observed Results Expected Results O-E (O-E)� (O-E)� E Prophase 20 21 27 -6 36 1.33 Metaphase 3 7 4 3 9 2.25 Anaphase 2 7 3 4 16 5.33 Telophase 12 15 16 -1 1 0.06 To establish the actual validity of the null hypothesis,

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    is clear why complementarity plays such a major role in cellular activities. Cancer is believed to begin with one wildly multiplying cell in a given tissue. The process so resembles the action of cells in an embryo as they divide and shape the body that scientists think that cancer is tied in with the basic chemistry of the cell.

  1. Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer.

    The reproduction of viruses mimics the processes by which cells grow and divide, but the simplicity of viruses makes them much easier than cells to study and understand. In cells DNA is transcribed into a strand of messenger RNA and the RNA is translated into protein.

  2. patterns of growth and development

    This kind of active experimentation is best seen during feeding time, when discovering new and interesting ways of throwing your spoon, dish, and food. Substage 6 (18 - 24 months) : Beginnings of symbolic representation - They use deferred imitation where they do something that they had seen earlier that day.

  1. Cell Theory - Discuss the theory that living organisms are composed of cells.

    * presence of inducer inhibits binding to operator ??repressor-inducer complex * inducer allows transcription of controlled gene 6.3.3 Explain the process of transcription in eukaryotes including the role of the promoter region, RNA polymerase, nucleoside triphosphates and the terminator. * promoter codes for expression of gene * DNA unzips to

  2. Parkinsons Disease

    * Stiffness of muscles (rigidity) and muscles may feel tenser. Also, your arms do not tend to swing as much when you walk. * Shaking (tremor) is common, but does not always occur. It normally affects the fingers, thumbs, hands, and arms, but can affect other parts of the body.

  1. Is Biological Control Better than Chemical Control?

    populations are low, so that they have time to establish themselves as well as the pest has. Inundative bio-control relies on large quantity release of the predator to immediately restrict growth. This type of control is similar to that of chemical control, because the pest has no time to establish.

  2. Research on mad cow disease and creutzfeldt-jacob disease

    jerking, Tremors Cause of CJD There were many speculations among neurologists of what is the actual cause of CJD until a U.S neurologist by the name of Stanley B. Prusiner proposed his theory on proteinaceous infectious particles (Shortened to Prions), the theory is that a prion is an infectious agent comprised purely of proteins.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work