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Captive Breeding

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

BIOLOGY COURSEWORK DONE BY; SIMI MATHEW TARGET AUDIENCE: A-LEVEL BIOLOGY STUDENTS INTRODUCTION: Page 1 FIRST BIOLOGICAL ASPECT: ROLE OF MODERN ZOOS IN CONSERVATION: Page 2 SECOND (MAJOR) ASPECT: CAPTIVE BREEDING: Page 4 WORD COUNT: 1942 Introduction This report is based on the visit to Paignton Zoo (Devon) on March 2007.The zoo encourages conservation and participates in captive breeding programs .This made me to think of need of conservation and how modern zoos help in conservation by captive breeding. Many species are becoming extinct before they have even been scientifically named. Current rate of extinction is at least hundred to thousand times higher than the natural rate. This is due to a range of factors caused by humans, pollution, global climate change, deforestation, population growth etc. First biological aspect: Role of Modern Zoos in Conservation Role of zoos In the past zoos were merely focused on the collection of exotic animals, to be nothing more that curiosities for the wealthy, and the welfare of the animals was maintained only so much as that they did not die. The conditions were cruel and small cages were used, giving the captive animals barely any room to move around. However as time moved on the focus changed from a simple menagerie, to Zoological parks where elaborate dioramas were set up to create habitats for the animals, and yet while the treatment was better the they still focused on the exploitation of animals for the publics viewing pleasure. ...read more.

Middle

the male, who when unable to reach the female is likely to mount a replacement "fake" female allowing the keeper to collect the sperm. Embryo Transfer "surrogacy" (in mammals) - There is only a certain number of offspring a single female can have during her lifetime even though she has thousands of egg follicles in her ovaries. The solution is simple . . . the female is super ovulated (the release of multiple eggs is triggered by hormones), and the multiple eggs are collected by surgery called laparoscopy. Next the eggs are fertilized in a test tube with sperm from a donor male; the resulting embryos can be frozen for storage (see picture above - From www.westholmewagyu.com.au), or immediately implanted into a closely related but non-endangered species for full-term growth, birth, and later foster rearing by the surrogate mother. Fostering - There are some animals which can breed successfully in captivity, but are unable to raise their own young. In these situations, the young can be raised by another similar species. This is most commonly used in birds. An example being the Asiatic jungle fowl whose chicks are incubated and reared by domestic chickens! Also, the eggs of whooping cranes can be placed in nests of wild, closely-related sandhill cranes which then raise them. The Pros and Cons of Captive Breeding Pros 90% of all mammals and 74% of all birds which have been added to U.S. ...read more.

Conclusion

The embryos could be surrogated by the closest existing species to the extinct animal giving it a good chance at re-establishing its presence in the world. This would allow future generations to enjoy the beauty of some endangered animals, and allow the animals to have a second chance free from the destruction caused by humanity. Analysis To write this report I used a number of recourses the majority of the information was from the Paignton zoo official website itself. It's not fully complete because the website concentrated on the zoos activates and a little information about other zoos. The leaflets from the zoo were also quiet useful, providing the current projects being carried out by the modern zoos. I feel this information is reliable, because it comes from a reputable source, and while some of their campaigning may by based upon opinions, the details about what they are currently doing is factual. The speaker from Paignton while obviously bias, provided an insight into what as a zoo Paignton is doing for conservation, along with giving details about the processes involved in captive breeding. Also I have used the book called 'breeding endangered species in captivity' written by R.D Martin which was useful in providing an understanding of breeding but I didn't used it much in the report as it's edited in 1975.and it needed dated. Another book I have used is 'the stationary Ark' written by Gerald Durrell,which showed more about breeding. Other websites though provided some information not much was taken from them other than some picture. ...read more.

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