• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Extracts from this document...


CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in the molecule is usually 2:1. These, as a class, are the most abundant organic compounds found in nature. Green plants (and bacteria) produce carbohydrates by the process of photosynthesis. Carbohydrates may be grouped into three categories monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are the sugars (simple carbohydrates), whilst the polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) are the non-sugars. Of the sugars, monosaccharides are sweeter than disaccharides. Monosaccharides are the smallest carbohydrates. They are also known as monomers. This means they are used as blocks in the building carbohydrates. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1. ...read more.


Below are the structures of the glucose. It is used in the process of respiration to produce energy in animals. Fructose on the other hand is extremely sweet and found in fruits (strawberry jam) and vegetables. Galactose is found in mammalian milk as a constituent of lactose. It is used to provide energy to the infant. Monosaccharides are formed by the hydrolysis of disaccharides, which involves the addition of water to the disaccharides and the breaking of the glycosidic bond. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides joined by the glycosidic bond. They are sweet but not as sweet as monosaccharides. The most important disaccharides are sucrose, lactose and maltose. ...read more.


Polysaccharides are non-sugars. The joining of many monosaccharides forms polysaccharides. The three important polysaccharides include cellulose, starch and glycogen. Cellulose is found throughout the plant in the cell walls of the plant cell walls. It is assists in support, strength and protection of the plant. This is a polysaccharide of �-glucose joined by 1,4 glycosidic bonds, thereby forming straight unbranched chains. Starch is found in the leaves of plants. It is used as energy storage, as it is insoluble. Starch is a polysaccharide of ?-glucose monomers and is a mixture of amylose (1,4 unbranched chains) and amylopectin (1,4 and 1,6 - tightly packed and branched chain). Glycogen is found in animals. It is known as animal fat, as it is used as energy storage. It is made up of ?-glucose monomers with 1,4 and more 1,6 glycosidic bonds. They are very branched. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    The correct temperature in the water bath was maintained by adding more hot water to it throughout the experiment. 11. This was repeated using each different type of sugar with each different type of yeast: Baker's glucose, Baker's sucrose, Baker's starch, Brewer's glucose, Brewer's sucrose, Brewer's starch.

  2. Rate of Respiration

    produced over time (min) GLUCOSE 0 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 25 min 30 min 35 min 40 min 45 min 0.0 10.5 16.9 22.2 31.8 34.9 41.4 44.9 47.8 47.8 0.0 9 13.5 20.6 26.5 35.2 41.2 45.6 48 50 0.0 10.8 14 21.8 28.2 32 35.8 40.6 45.1 49.1

  1. Carbohydrates are substances with the general formula Cx(H2O)y, where x and y are variable ...

    * Structural Isomerism is due to the way the atoms or groups within the molecules are linked differently to each other. * Hence all hexoses are isomers of each other. E.g. glucose, mannose, galactose and fructose all have the same molecular formula (C6H12O6)

  2. The Role of Carbohydrates

    Ribose and deoxyribose are two such pentoses which are also important constituents of RNA (ribonucleic acid)and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) respectively, are aldoses and can exist either as chain or ring forms: One other main type of monosaccharide are hexoses which have 6 carbon atoms in a molecule and have the general formula C6H12O6.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work