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Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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Introduction

CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in the molecule is usually 2:1. These, as a class, are the most abundant organic compounds found in nature. Green plants (and bacteria) produce carbohydrates by the process of photosynthesis. Carbohydrates may be grouped into three categories monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are the sugars (simple carbohydrates), whilst the polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) are the non-sugars. Of the sugars, monosaccharides are sweeter than disaccharides. Monosaccharides are the smallest carbohydrates. They are also known as monomers. This means they are used as blocks in the building carbohydrates. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1. ...read more.

Middle

Below are the structures of the glucose. It is used in the process of respiration to produce energy in animals. Fructose on the other hand is extremely sweet and found in fruits (strawberry jam) and vegetables. Galactose is found in mammalian milk as a constituent of lactose. It is used to provide energy to the infant. Monosaccharides are formed by the hydrolysis of disaccharides, which involves the addition of water to the disaccharides and the breaking of the glycosidic bond. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides joined by the glycosidic bond. They are sweet but not as sweet as monosaccharides. The most important disaccharides are sucrose, lactose and maltose. ...read more.

Conclusion

Polysaccharides are non-sugars. The joining of many monosaccharides forms polysaccharides. The three important polysaccharides include cellulose, starch and glycogen. Cellulose is found throughout the plant in the cell walls of the plant cell walls. It is assists in support, strength and protection of the plant. This is a polysaccharide of �-glucose joined by 1,4 glycosidic bonds, thereby forming straight unbranched chains. Starch is found in the leaves of plants. It is used as energy storage, as it is insoluble. Starch is a polysaccharide of ?-glucose monomers and is a mixture of amylose (1,4 unbranched chains) and amylopectin (1,4 and 1,6 - tightly packed and branched chain). Glycogen is found in animals. It is known as animal fat, as it is used as energy storage. It is made up of ?-glucose monomers with 1,4 and more 1,6 glycosidic bonds. They are very branched. ...read more.

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