• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells,

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A microorganism is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular) or cell clusters. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design. Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as nonliving. Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibienses, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye. A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. ...read more.

Middle

A variety of lifestyle or health related habits (behavioural factors), material factors (such as the environment and living standards), and psychosocial factors (for example, stress and risk taking) can have a major impact on a person?s health. Factors often cluster together, for example, where a particular social group tend to live in close proximity within a neighbourhood, producing inequalities in ill health and inequalities in such causes of ill health. Behavioural and social issues that impact on health include smoking, diet, nutrition and alcohol (which together account for many CHD and cancer deaths), poor diet leading to obesity (reducing life expectancy) or alternatively malnutrition, lack of physical exercise, sexual behaviour (for example, leading to infection or teenage pregnancy), and problems resulting from drug taking. ...read more.

Conclusion

Very rarely, patients with somewhat similar clinical features may have deletions on the short arm of chromosome 10. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated disease of the brain. It usually occurs following a viral infection but may appear following vaccination, bacterial or parasitic infection, or even appear spontaneously. As it involves autoimmune demyelization, it is similar to multiple sclerosis, and is considered part of the Multiple sclerosis borderline diseases. The incidence rate is about 8 per 1,000,000 people per year. Although it occurs in all ages, most reported cases are in children and adolescents, with the average age around 5 to 8 years old. The mortality rate may be as high as 5%, full recovery is seen in 50 to 75% of cases, while up to 70 to 90% recover with some minor residual disability. The average time to recover is one to six months. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Increasing obesity in children

    Economic - If needing hospital treatment or seeing the Doctor they will be taking up the time and money from that service which could be spent elsewhere. It is also expensive to afford the huge amounts of food they eat but even more expensive if they try to go on

  2. health and safety in the microbiology department

    Clouds of infective dust or spores can be released by the opening of containers of freeze-dried cultures or the withdrawal of cotton-wool plugs that have dried after being wetted by culture fluid. Convectional and other air currents can disperse aerosols and dusts widely within a laboratory and also into adjacent rooms.

  1. Growing Micro-organisms

    * Agitation (Impeller): - Agitation is there to keep the yeast cells moving and active, I don't know much about agitation or agitators but an agitator is required to achieve a number of mixing objectives, e.g. bulk fluid and gas phase mixing, air dispersing, oxygen transfer, suspension of solid particles and maintaining a uniform environment.

  2. Enzymes and Micro-organisms

    It is in an open fermentor so nutrients can be added continuously and at a steady rate. The advantages of using continuous culture are: * Cells can be maintained at a constant physiological state because the specific growth rate and the substrate concentration can be set simply by setting the

  1. Plant Metabolism.

    Following this a flux control coefficient can describe the contribution that an Enzyme, E, makes to the control of flux through a pathway, J; C= dJ/J dE/E The first enzyme from the Calvin cycle to be investigated in this way was Rubisco (Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.)

  2. Cell death during embryogenesis

    development or evolution, the elimination of cells needed by only one sex, the decrease in the number of germ cells able to be passed into the next generation, the elimination of cells that migrated to abnormal locations or lacked proper linkages with extra-cellular substance, and the elimination of cells that were originally produced in excess.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work