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Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells,

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A microorganism is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular) or cell clusters. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design. Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as nonliving. Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibienses, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye. A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. ...read more.


A variety of lifestyle or health related habits (behavioural factors), material factors (such as the environment and living standards), and psychosocial factors (for example, stress and risk taking) can have a major impact on a person?s health. Factors often cluster together, for example, where a particular social group tend to live in close proximity within a neighbourhood, producing inequalities in ill health and inequalities in such causes of ill health. Behavioural and social issues that impact on health include smoking, diet, nutrition and alcohol (which together account for many CHD and cancer deaths), poor diet leading to obesity (reducing life expectancy) or alternatively malnutrition, lack of physical exercise, sexual behaviour (for example, leading to infection or teenage pregnancy), and problems resulting from drug taking. ...read more.


Very rarely, patients with somewhat similar clinical features may have deletions on the short arm of chromosome 10. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated disease of the brain. It usually occurs following a viral infection but may appear following vaccination, bacterial or parasitic infection, or even appear spontaneously. As it involves autoimmune demyelization, it is similar to multiple sclerosis, and is considered part of the Multiple sclerosis borderline diseases. The incidence rate is about 8 per 1,000,000 people per year. Although it occurs in all ages, most reported cases are in children and adolescents, with the average age around 5 to 8 years old. The mortality rate may be as high as 5%, full recovery is seen in 50 to 75% of cases, while up to 70 to 90% recover with some minor residual disability. The average time to recover is one to six months. ...read more.

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