• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

cardiovascular system

Extracts from this document...


Mark and Peter's stories homework 6 The meaning of the following terms in relation to the cardiovascular system: Cardiovascular disease Also known as CVD. This term refers to various medical conditions that affect the heart and the blood vessels. (1) The most common forms of this disease are stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). The term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system; it is usually referred to those related to arterial disease. Also known as atherosclerosis. Most countries face high and increasing rates of cardiovascular disease. (2) CVD is the biggest killer the UK with over 200,000 deaths per year, 60,000 of these being premature. (3) Fainting Fainting occurs when there has been a fall in blood pressure, which reduces the amount of blood and oxygen flowing to the brain. A faint is characterised by suddenly feeling weak and unsteady, before passing out for a short period of time, usually just for a few seconds. It can happen when you are sitting down, standing up, or when you get up too quickly. ...read more.


This is called an ischaemic stroke, which happens when a clot blocks an artery that carries blood to the brain. The second type of stroke is a bleed. This is when a blood vessel bursts, causing bleeding (haemorrhage) into the brain. This is called a haemorrhagic stroke. (7) Walking and speech distorted If you have difficulties with your speech or walking, it may have come as an effect of having a stroke. Many stroke patients find that they loose their ability to walk and speak properly. They require close attention in order for them to re-gain it. High Blood Pressure Blood pressure is defined as the amount of pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries as the blood moves through them. There are two measurements used to assess blood pressure: - the systolic pressure - is the blood pressure when the heart beats and forces blood around the body - the diastolic pressure - is the blood pressure when the heart is resting between beats Both the systolic and diastolic pressures are measured and these figures are usually represented with the systolic pressure first, followed by the diastolic pressure. ...read more.


The arteries are often narrowed by fatty deposits which form on the artery walls. There are a number of factors which can increase the risk such as - smoking, high blood pressure, poor diet, lack of exercise and obesity. (10) Coronary bypass surgery The aim of coronary bypass surgery is to bypass (get around) the narrowed sections of coronary arteries. The surgeon does this by attaching a blood vessel between the aorta and a point along the coronary artery, beyond the narrowed area. The most common way of doing bypass surgery is for the surgeon to make an incision (cut) down the middle of the breastbone. However some operations can be performed through a smaller wound, so the breastbone does not need to be cut. This is called minimally invasive surgery. In most cases a heart-lung bypass machine is used to circulate the blood around the body while the surgeon operates on the heart. However some surgeons can carry out the surgery without this machine, this is called beating heart surgery. (11) Total word count - 1,134 Reference List: 1. ovariancancer.gog199.cancer.gov/glossary.html 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiovascular_disease 3. Salters-Nuffield advanced biology student book - page 6 4. http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleId=389&sectionId=10 5. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/coma/coma.htm 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurological_disease 7. http://www.stroke.org.uk/information/what_is_a_stroke/causes_of_stroke.html 8. http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleID=203 9. http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/Mosby_factsheets/cholesterol.html 10. http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleid=187 11. http://www.bhf.org.uk/living_with_a_heart_condition/treatment/having_heart_surgery/coronary_bypass_surgery.aspx ?? ?? ?? ?? Faye Speddings 12AAR ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Defence against Disease.

    * T cells do not make antibodies * Phagocytes that have ingested foreign material carry some of the foreign antigen on their surfaces as well as their usual class 2 marker proteins. * Helper T cells recognises these antigens and stimulates B cells * Cytotoxic T cells kills body cells

  2. Should homeopathy be available on the NHS?

    Overall, this avoids the potential of interpreting a trial as non-conclusive, based on one significant positive or negative result out of many opposing results. Based on the results on the next page, I was able to manipulate them into a graph in order to analyse the results obtained by the British Homeopathy Association.

  1. Increasing obesity in children

    Age Energy (kcal) Protein (g) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) 1 1100 27 600 7 2 1300 32 600 7 3-4 1500 37 600 8 5-6 1680 42 600 10 7-8 1900 47 600 10 9-11 2050 51 700 12 12-14 2150 53 700 12 15-17 2150 53 600 12 If

  2. The costs of cigarette smoking

    In all, smokers die an average of eight years earlier than non-smokers4, and are less healthy and less active during their intervening years. Also, the tars and gasses in cigarette smoke damage blood vessel walls and increase one's chances of heart attack or stroke.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work