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Carry out research using books and ICT to produce a word processed report on the problems and treatment of renal failure. Include a discussion of the issues associated with dialysis and organ transplantation.

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Carry out research using books and ICT to produce a word processed report on the problems and treatment of renal failure. Include a discussion of the issues associated with dialysis and organ transplantation. The main function of the kidney is to produce urine. By producing urine which is excreted from the body, the kidney maintains the constant internal environment. The kidneys also produce hormones that help regulate blood pressure, make red blood cells and form bone. They are also play an important part in the maintenance of water balance, electrolyte balance and the pH of blood. The kidneys are able to perform these tasks perfectly, but sometimes the ability to filter waste and fluids is lost. This causes dangerous levels of the substances to accumulate in the body. The result is kidney (renal) failure. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons causing them to lose their filtering capacity. Damage to the nephrons may happen quickly often as a result of poisoning or injury The reason this happens is because the tubules or glomerulus of the nephron gets damaged or diseased. ...read more.


Haemodialysis is carried out by a kidney machine and it filters the waste products from patient's blood. A minor operation is performed beforehand to enlarge the vein, usually in the arm by joining it to the artery forming a fistula. Here the blood is able to flow through at a higher pressure than blood flowing through a normal vein. Once the fistula has formed two needles can be inserted into it at each dialysis session. A semi-permeable membrane from a dialysing fluid separates the blood. The membrane allows the surplus inorganic salts and water to diffuse across the dialysing fluid, but prevents the passage of blood cells or plasma proteins. The blood returns to the body free of toxins via a forearm vein. The process needs to be carried out three times a week for approximately four hours each time. Haemodialysis is used in emergencies for acute renal failure. Sometimes however there is no time for a fistula to form and instead the tube is inserted into one of the large veins at the back of the neck, in order for the blood to reach the kidney machine. ...read more.


The body is able to recognise its own tissue which it accepts but will reject any foreign tissue. A foreign tissue acts as an antigen and stimulates B-lymphocytes and their derivatives plasma cells to form an antibody. Other, T-lymphocytes, which have been synthesised in the thymus gland, do not release their antibody, but destroy foreign cells by direct contact. The antibody combines with the antigen, and this antigen-antibody reaction leads to the destruction of the antigen. A transplanted organ such as the kidney could be completely destroyed. Successful organ transplantation has only become possible with the development of means for holding back the rejection processes. These are aimed at reducing the number of circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are formed by the lymphoid tissue and bone marrow. The lymphocytes can be reduced by irradiating the lymphoid tissue and by giving immunosuppressive drugs. But the reduction of these white cells increases the risk of the patient's liability to infection. The level of immunosuppressive drugs may be reduced after time but a maintenance dose may be required for the rest of the patient's life. Dialysis and organ transplantation are two ways in which people's lives can be preserved or saved. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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