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case study- cystic fibrosis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction With the advancement of technology, science has been able to achieve new wonders. These improvements and discoveries in science have allowed the human race to explore and learn more about the world. One of these achievements, is cloning. Cloning has opened the doors to explore human beings in a way that was once never possible. With cloning, the human body, as well as other organisms, will be studied. Cloning and genetic engineering will both be helpful to improve scientific knowledge, but is cloning beneficial? For years people have been asking questions about whether cloning is right or wrong, this case study is an investigation all about cloning, how it is done, reasons why it is done and why people believe strongly for and against it. I am going to research and define both sides of this case. I will be using sources such as the internet and some text books and newspaper articles. I will research people's opinions and views on cloning and exactly what areas of cloning have already been studied and experimented on. I will also look into the near and distant future of cloning to see what information I can find. What is cloning? Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two. The possibility of human cloning was raised when Scottish scientists at Roslyn Institute, created the famous sheep "Dolly" and aroused worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. This was known as the scientific breakthrough of 1997, and also generated uncertainty over the meaning of "cloning". There are several different types of cloning: DNA cloning, Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning. In DNA cloning scientists transfer a particular DNA fragment from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. The DNA can then be propagated in a foreign host cell. ...read more.

Middle

For example, pig livers can be transplant to a patient which suffers from liver failure but there is no human liver available. In this case, the pig liver can be transplanted to the patient temporarily until he can find a suitable human liver. As both humans and pigs are mammals. Human cloning is theoretically available as well. If scientists can clone the patient, they he can have an identical liver. The operation will have no repulsion at all. It will be safer and directly benefit the patients. There is a case in San Francisco in 1988. A girl called Anissa suffered from cancer. The only therapy was to kill all the stem cells by high toxic. But she could not live without stem cells. The parents of Anissa had found for suitable bone marrow for transplantation. But failed to do so. So they decided to have another baby which may provided suitable bone marrow. (The comparability is 25%.) They performed the bone marrow transplantation when her sister was 14 month old. 5 years later, Anissa recovered. This case sparked debate in the society. Advocates of human cloning said if human cloning succeeded. The comparability of the transplantation is 100%. This can eliminate of the risks and hence save more patients. But this thought received more opposes than agreement. The opponents think that this will deprive the human value, because the child is born on purpose, that's to rescue other's life. The child will become the equipment of therapy. The father of Jesuits, Richard McCormick said it is immoral to accept human cloning. Despite the painful circumstances, the only way to treat this case morally is to let the patient dies, not to clone another child. Provide treatments for variety diseases Cloning of stem cells will provide treatments for variety diseases. Because stem cells can turn into many other cell types with the right prompting, doctors may be able to replace tissues and organs damaged by disease or injury to restore healthy function. ...read more.

Conclusion

A cloned child wouldn't be able to say that God created him, nor would that child be able to say that he had 2 parents. Most christians also believe that cloned children might not have souls. God created everyone and gives everyone a soul, so what happens to the people that God doesn't create? No one can really say, and that, to most people, is scary. However, on the other hand people would see cloning aas many different advantages, such as genetic engineering. Through this factor, people can choose what features they want on their child. There are also ways that cloning can help avoid the risks of genetic diseases. Supporters of human cloning argue that the initial negative reaction is simply a common human response to something new and unknown, and compare cloning to other assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization. When the idea of taking a woman's egg out of the body, fertilizing it in the laboratory, and implanting it back in the womb was first attempted in the 1970s, many people found the procedure disturbing and unnatural, and wondered how "test-tube" babies would fare socially and psychologically. But today in vitro fertilization is accepted by most people as an acceptable way for infertile couples to have their own children. Cloning advocates argue that attitudes toward cloning will undergo a similar evolution and the procedure will come to be seen as an acceptable alternative for infertile people who want to have children. Whether or not human cloning will eventually be as common-and accepted-as in vitro fertilization remains to be seen, but it is clear that the ethical debate over human cloning will not soon die down. I believe that Cloning is an opportunity in life for humans in the future to try new discoveries I feel that if we never try we will never know as we do learn from our mistakes. Bibliography What is cloning? Researched from: http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/01305/cloningEnglish/main.htm http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/cloning.html http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122429/ethics/advantages.htm 'Advantages of cloning'and'Dissadvantages of cloning' researched from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122429/ethics/disadvantages.htm CONTENTS 1.INTRODUCTION 2.WHAT IS CLONING? 4.CLONING PICTURES AND DIAGRAMS 5.FAMOUS CLONING QUOTES 8.ADVANTAGES OF CLONING 12.DISSADVANTAGES OF CLONING 16.CONCLUSION 18. ...read more.

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