• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

cell components

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

1. Explain how the functions of four cell components relate to overall cell function. (M1) Introduction to the Question. To answer this question fully I am going to find my research on the internet, class handouts & from the Health and Social care book. The four cell components I have decided to write about are: * Mitochondria * Nucleus * Endoplasmic reticulum * Ribosome's Mitochondria are among the most conspicuous organelles in the cytoplasm, and are present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. They have a distinctive structure when seen in the electron microscope: each mitochondrion is usually sausage-shaped, several micrometres long and enclosed in two separate membranes, the inner one being highly folded. Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles. Cells need energy to grow and replicate and mitochondria supply most of this energy by performing the last stages of the breakdown of food molecules in the process known as the Krebs cycle. These stages involve the consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide-a process called respiration because of its similarity to breathing. Without mitochondria, animals and fungi would be unable to use oxygen to extract the full amount of energy from the food they consume to fuel their growth and replication. ...read more.

Middle

In animals and plants each chromosome is doubled but remains joined at one point. When the DNA molecule is stripped of bound proteins it consists of two strands which are joined together in a double helix. Each individual thread is joined up end to end by a long string of units. There are four individual units of DNA they are labelled A, T, G and C, which stand for the identifying bases for each unit, adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Nucleus is the "brain" of the cell and is contained within the nuclear membrane (which insures that the interior of the nucleus is isolated from the cells cytoplasm allowing two different environments to be maintained) it contains pairs of chromosomes each carrying hereditary DNA (Toole, G & S: 1984) the nucleus controls every organelle with the Cytoplasm. Within the nucleus is the Nucleolus, It is a small structure within the nucleus that forms ribosome's which then pass into the cytoplasm to produce protein (Moth.E: 2003). The cell membranes is a fine membrane made of protein and lipids, it has two functions to keep the cytoplasm and the nucleus in. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum is found in the cytoplasm of the cell and like the plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids and protein. ...read more.

Conclusion

Here is a diagram of a ribosome: Source: http://uk.images.search.yahoo.com/search/images/view?back=http%3A%2F%2F.uk Ribosome's existed in two distinct forms; free and bound and may be positioned in several locations throughout the cell depending on cell function. Free ribosome's can occur individually, a monosome, or in clusters called polyribosome's or polysomes and are found in the cytosol (the fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components). Found in greater concentrations in cells that retain proteins, they manufacture proteins that are either held in solution in the cytoplasm or those used in the formation of cytoplasmic structural and motile elements. Bound ribosome's are situated on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum1[1] forming rough ER (RER) and a large number are seen in cells that make proteins to be secreted out of the cell, such as pancreatic cells producing digestive proteins. The bound ribosome's form proteins that may be utilised for the cell membrane, packaged into vesicles for storage, as well as those required for export from the cell (http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/R/Ribosomes.html). Ribosomes are also located in mitochondria and chloroplasts within eukaryotic organisms, these are smaller than those found in the cytoplasm and can be compared to bacterial ribosomes. ?? ?? ?? ?? Unit 13: Physiology of Fluid Balance in Health & Social Care, Task 2. Carla Cooper 3rd March 2008 Tutor: Barry Morton 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the molecular structure of starch (amylase), glycogen and cellulose, and relate these structures ...

    4 star(s)

    Cellulose is a relatively stiff material, and in plants cellulose is used as a structural molecule to add support to the leaves, stem and other plant parts. Despite the fact that it cannot be used as an energy source in most animals, cellulose fiber is essential in the diet because

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    It also makes diffusion easier. The placenta also has metabolic and endocrine functions. It secretes placental lactogen or somatomammotropin, which increases the amount of glucose and lipids in the mother's blood; hormones that maintain pregnancy such as progesterone that maintains the endometrium, oestrogen that causes proliferation of the endometrium; and

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect Of Temperature On The Permeability Of The Cell Membrane

    3 star(s)

    There were also certain limitations, which made the experiment harder than it could have been and without these limitations the results, would be much better and produce the best absorbances. There may be same sources of experimental error; one source of error was extracting the beetroot from the distilled water with the tweezers.

  2. Peer reviewed

    The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics

    5 star(s)

    The hypothesis was changed to this after the pilot study was conducted, as this is what the pilot results showed. You can see this by looking at the table on page 6. So, neither did the hypothesis prove to be correct nor false, it seemed to lie somewhere in between.

  1. Rate of Respiration

    lactose, as residual glucose within the yeast that will be used for respiration. Therefore I will leave the east in the water bath for 1 hour before the experiment to ensure that the residual glucose has been respired. * All substrates will be repeated twice (except lactose which will be repeated just once)

  2. Fundamental human anatomy and physiology.

    Reference: http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit2_2_body_tissues3_muscle.html Class notes hand out 26 / 2 / 2008 Web sight viewed on 26 / 2 / 2008 Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue are found in the brain, nerve and the spinal cord and nerve this is so the nervous tissue can coordinate and control many activities within the

  1. Blood System Assignemnt

    A red blood cell can live for up to 120 days. Red blood cells are able to attach to oxygen to carry it within the circulation to the tissues. When they get to an area where the oxygen is needed, they give it up and pick up carbon dioxide which they carry back to the lungs.

  2. The Endocrine System

    after the rise and then sudden fall of oestrogen and progesterone following pregnancy. An excessive level of prolactin in the blood is known as hyperprolactinaemia, and can be caused by pituitary tumours, damage to the stalk, and inhibition of dopamine by drugs, polycystic ovary disease, and hypothyroidism as well as many rarer causes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work