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Cells and Tissues

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Cells and Tissues Parts of a standard cell 1. Cytoplasm - "cell matter" Cytoplasm is the watery environment inside the cell. This extra-cellular fluid consists of all of a cell's internal contents, and is mostly made of water. Cytoplasm includes salts, an assortment of organic molecules, including many enzymes that catalyze reactions, as well as water. The cytoplasm is separated from the watery extra-cellular fluid, which is outside, by the plasma membrane. It contains discrete membrane-enclosed structures called organelles. Each of the organelles performs a specific cellular function. 2. Plasma membrane - 7.0nm thick the plasma membrane serves as the interface between the machinery in the interior of the cell and the extra-cellular fluid (ECF) that bathes all cells. The lipids in the plasma membrane are chiefly phospholipids like phosphatidyl ethanolamine and cholesterol. Phospholipids are amphiphilic with the hydrocarbon tail of the molecule being hydrophobic; its polar head hydrophilic. As the plasma membrane faces watery solutions on both sides, its phospholipids accommodate this by forming a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophobic tails facing each other. 3. Nuclear membrane - The nuclear membrane insures that the interior of the nucleus is isolated from a cell's cytoplasm, allowing two different environments to be maintained. ...read more.


Centrioles called "basal bodies" form cilia and flagella. 8. Chromatin is that portion of the cell nucleus which contains all of the DNA of the nucleus in animal or plant cells. (A small amount of special DNA is also found in the mitochondria of the cell cytoplasm outside of the cell nucleus.) 9. Microtubules - Microtubules are conveyer belts inside the cells. They move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. They also serve a cytoskeletal role. Structurally, they are linear polymers of tubulin which is a globular protein. These linear polymers are called protofilaments. The tubulin molecules are the bead like structures. A protofilament is a linear row of tubulin beads. 10. Golgi apparatus - The Golgi apparatus is a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 11. Rough endoplasmic reticulum - Rough endoplasmic reticulum forms a branched reticulum that expands as the cell becomes more active in protein synthesis. 12. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types and it serves different functions in each. It consists of tubules and vesicles that branch forming a network. In some cells there are dilated areas like the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum. ...read more.


Axons grow out of the cell body, which houses the nucleus as well as other organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum. The length of some axons is so great that it is difficult to see how the cell body can control them. Nevertheless, there is a steady transport of cell components (e.g., vesicles, mitochondria) from the cell body along the entire length of the axon. This flow is driven by kinesins moving along the many microtubules in the cytoplasm within the axon.In many neurons, nerve impulses are generated in short branched fibers called dendrites and also in the cell body. The impulses are then conducted along the axon, which usually branches several times close to its end. Many axons are covered with a glistening fatty sheath, the myelin sheath. It is the greatly-expanded plasma membrane of an accessory cell, the Schwann cell. Schwann cells are spaced at regular intervals along the axon. Their plasma membrane is wrapped around and around the axon forming the myelin sheath. Nervous organ Nerves This is an nerve these carry messages to your brain. Using Nerve cells and neurons. Nerve cells Neurons nerves. This is a good example of how cells make tissues and how tissues make organs I have used the following websites http://sun.menloschool.org http://users.rcn.com http://wiwi.essortment.com ?? ?? ?? ?? Andrew P Smith ...read more.

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