• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cellular organelles Structure and Function

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Eukaryotic Cellular Organelles: Structure and Function Introduction Cells take many different forms in living organism?s but there are a certain common features in which eukaryotic cells share. Individual cells consist of minute membrane bound vesicles found in the cytoplasm called organelles. These organelles play a crucial role in undertaking the processes that go in inside the cell in order for it to function. The following text aims to explain the structure and function of the major organelles. Nucleus The nucleus is commonly referred to as the control centre or brain of the cell; it directs instructions to other organelle to carry out specific tasks and contains the genetic material of the cell. The long strands of DNA found in the nucleus combine with proteins to form chromatin; the chromatin is then used to create chromosomes. A: Chromatin B: Nuclear Pores C: Nuclear Envelope D: Nucleolus E: Chromosomes Above: A Nucleus. The Nucleus is enclosed entirely by an inner and outer nuclear membrane which protects the fragile DNA and genetic material within. Throughout the surface of the nucleus the two membranes fuse together to create pores that allow the exit of RNA, and the entrance of nucleotides for DNA replication. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of folded tubules and vesicles found on the outside of the nucleus. ...read more.


Lysosome ? formed in the ER Lysosomes originate from the Golgi body and are responsible for keeping the cell clean. They destroy invading bacteria and break down redundant organelles, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The digestive enzymes found in lysosomes are created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum where they are then shifted to the Golgi body where the rest of the organelle is formed. A: Single-wall membrane B: Enzyme complexes Above: A Lysosome Lysosomes are single membrane spherical pouches which contain hydrolytic enzymes; they will break down a targeted material by fusing with it and releasing enzymes inside to overwhelm and digest the offending structure. The material is digested into very small pieces so that the fragments can then leave the lysosome and be used for nourishment or recycling within the cell. This process is called Phagocytosis. Mitochondrion Mitochondria provide the cell with energy and are present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria break down food molecules that come into the cell using oxygen. By breaking down food molecules the mitochondria produce vast amounts of ATP energy which the cell requires to function and perform tasks. Mitochondrion has its own unique DNA which is separate to that of the cell, this DNA contains to code for proteins. A: Inner membrane B: Outer membrane C: DNA D: ATP particles E: Matrix F: Cristae G: Ribosome Above: Mitochondria The Organelle has a double membrane; the outer membrane is smooth and allows the entrance of salts, sugars, and nucleotides. ...read more.


Available at: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/plant-cells-chloroplasts-and-cell-walls-14053956. (Accessed 19th April 2012). Ruiz, M. (2006). Animal mitochondrion diagram. [Online image]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_mitochondrion_diagram_en_(edit).svg. (Accessed 19th April 2012). Wiki.hicksvilleschools.org. (date unknown). Golgi body diagram. [Online image]. Available at: http://wiki.hicksvilleschools.org/groups/hsbiology/revisions/a67fa/13/. (Accessed 19th April 2012). Videos The Cell- Chemistry of Life (2009). Produced by Smith, J & Herbert, M. [Documentry]. Scotland: BBC FOUR The Cell- Hidden Kingdom (2009). Produced by Smith, J & Herbert, M. [Documentry]. Scotland: BBC FOUR The Cell- Spark of Life (2009). Produced by Smith, J & Herbert, M. [Documentry]. Scotland: BBC FOUR Websites BBC. (2012). Cells and their function. [Online video]. Retrieved 17th April, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/cells-and-their-function/1832.html BBC. (2012). Plant and animal cell structures. [Online video]. Retrieved 17th April, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/plant-and-animal-cell-structures/4188.html British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Golgi Apparatus. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/golgi British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Endoplasmic reticulum. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/er British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Lysosome. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/lysosome British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Mitochondrion - much more than an energy converter. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/mito British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Nuclear Pore. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/np British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Nuclear Envelope. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/ne British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Cells Unpacked - A look inside. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/insidecell S-cool. (Publication date unknown). Organelles. Retrieved 16th April, 2012, from http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/cells-and-organelles/revise-it/organelles S-cool. (Publication date unknown). S-Cool Revision Summary. Retrieved 16th April, 2012, from http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/biological-molecules-and-enzymes/remember-it/s-cool-revision-summary Page of ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

All of the main organelles are described. Sometimes the terminology used could be a little more scientific.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 29/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss how the structure of cell organelles is related to their functions.

    3 star(s)

    There are two ways of this flow, into and out of the cell. The nuclear envelope is an example of a membrane. The cell wall is another organelle that has a similar function as the membrane. It is fully permeable, also called porous, while the cell membrane is partially permeable.

  2. Qualitative tests for carbohydrates

    (ii) Fructose - gave a positive purple result under the Molisch test, a nice orange precipitate under the Benedict's test, a deep reddish brown under the Seliwanoff's test and no visual change under the iodone test or the Bial's test. As a reducing sugar and a hexose not a pentose these

  1. To investigate one of the factors that affects the permeability of cell membranes.

    in my conclusion, I am unsure about my result at 0% alcohol concentration, and there is a possibility that the result is incorrect because it does not relate to scientific knowledge, and the curve part of my line of best fit is wrong.

  2. The Effect of Concentration on Pectinase Using Apple

    It is clear that as the concentration of pectinase increases, the rate of reaction also increases. In the reaction that takes place between pectinase molecules and the pectin inside the cell walls of the apple, the pectin molecules bind with the pectinase to form an enzyme-substrate complex.

  1. Investigating the effect of temperature on the activity of free and immobilised enzymes.

    * The milk was added to syringe barrel and the stopwatch started. * After 7 minutes the screw clip was slowly opened and the bottom half of the liquid in the syringe barrel was run off before being tested for glucose using the Diabur strips.

  2. Does ethanol causes greater inhibition of pig liver catalase than of yeast catalase

    Pigs liver catalase Yeast catalase Average time (s) Difference (s) Average time (s) Difference (s) 0.00 29.33 0.00 60.00 0.00 0.01 36.00 6.67 71.67 11.67 0.02 44.33 15.00 84.33 24.33 0.03 49.67 20.34 86.50 26.50 0.04 54.00 24.67 88.33 28.33 0.05 71.67 42.34 111.67 51.67 0.06 102.33 73.00 134.67 74.67 Table 6: to show the effect of ethanol


    to where it is in low concentration (i.e. concentrated solutions). ?? is also written as ?s and called the solute potential. These terms are synonymous. Pure water contains no solutes, so ?? = 0, as it should. Water will tend to flow from dilute solutions (or pure water)

  2. Describe how the Organelles in the Beta Cells Work Together to Produce and Secrete ...

    It folds into its secondary structure, using hydrogen bonding, to form an alpha-helix or a beta-pleated sheet. This then travels further through the R.E.R. And folds into a tertiary structure, using hydrogen bonds, ionic and disulphide bonds. This process turns the amino acid into a globular (3-D)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work