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Cellular organelles Structure and Function

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Eukaryotic Cellular Organelles: Structure and Function Introduction Cells take many different forms in living organism?s but there are a certain common features in which eukaryotic cells share. Individual cells consist of minute membrane bound vesicles found in the cytoplasm called organelles. These organelles play a crucial role in undertaking the processes that go in inside the cell in order for it to function. The following text aims to explain the structure and function of the major organelles. Nucleus The nucleus is commonly referred to as the control centre or brain of the cell; it directs instructions to other organelle to carry out specific tasks and contains the genetic material of the cell. The long strands of DNA found in the nucleus combine with proteins to form chromatin; the chromatin is then used to create chromosomes. A: Chromatin B: Nuclear Pores C: Nuclear Envelope D: Nucleolus E: Chromosomes Above: A Nucleus. The Nucleus is enclosed entirely by an inner and outer nuclear membrane which protects the fragile DNA and genetic material within. Throughout the surface of the nucleus the two membranes fuse together to create pores that allow the exit of RNA, and the entrance of nucleotides for DNA replication. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of folded tubules and vesicles found on the outside of the nucleus. ...read more.


Lysosome ? formed in the ER Lysosomes originate from the Golgi body and are responsible for keeping the cell clean. They destroy invading bacteria and break down redundant organelles, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The digestive enzymes found in lysosomes are created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum where they are then shifted to the Golgi body where the rest of the organelle is formed. A: Single-wall membrane B: Enzyme complexes Above: A Lysosome Lysosomes are single membrane spherical pouches which contain hydrolytic enzymes; they will break down a targeted material by fusing with it and releasing enzymes inside to overwhelm and digest the offending structure. The material is digested into very small pieces so that the fragments can then leave the lysosome and be used for nourishment or recycling within the cell. This process is called Phagocytosis. Mitochondrion Mitochondria provide the cell with energy and are present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria break down food molecules that come into the cell using oxygen. By breaking down food molecules the mitochondria produce vast amounts of ATP energy which the cell requires to function and perform tasks. Mitochondrion has its own unique DNA which is separate to that of the cell, this DNA contains to code for proteins. A: Inner membrane B: Outer membrane C: DNA D: ATP particles E: Matrix F: Cristae G: Ribosome Above: Mitochondria The Organelle has a double membrane; the outer membrane is smooth and allows the entrance of salts, sugars, and nucleotides. ...read more.


Available at: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/plant-cells-chloroplasts-and-cell-walls-14053956. (Accessed 19th April 2012). Ruiz, M. (2006). Animal mitochondrion diagram. [Online image]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_mitochondrion_diagram_en_(edit).svg. (Accessed 19th April 2012). Wiki.hicksvilleschools.org. (date unknown). Golgi body diagram. [Online image]. Available at: http://wiki.hicksvilleschools.org/groups/hsbiology/revisions/a67fa/13/. (Accessed 19th April 2012). Videos The Cell- Chemistry of Life (2009). Produced by Smith, J & Herbert, M. [Documentry]. Scotland: BBC FOUR The Cell- Hidden Kingdom (2009). Produced by Smith, J & Herbert, M. [Documentry]. Scotland: BBC FOUR The Cell- Spark of Life (2009). Produced by Smith, J & Herbert, M. [Documentry]. Scotland: BBC FOUR Websites BBC. (2012). Cells and their function. [Online video]. Retrieved 17th April, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/cells-and-their-function/1832.html BBC. (2012). Plant and animal cell structures. [Online video]. Retrieved 17th April, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/plant-and-animal-cell-structures/4188.html British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Golgi Apparatus. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/golgi British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Endoplasmic reticulum. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/er British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Lysosome. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/lysosome British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Mitochondrion - much more than an energy converter. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/mito British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Nuclear Pore. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/np British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Nuclear Envelope. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/ne British Society for Cell Biology. (date unknown). Cells Unpacked - A look inside. Retrieved 19th April, 2012, from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/insidecell S-cool. (Publication date unknown). Organelles. Retrieved 16th April, 2012, from http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/cells-and-organelles/revise-it/organelles S-cool. (Publication date unknown). S-Cool Revision Summary. Retrieved 16th April, 2012, from http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/biological-molecules-and-enzymes/remember-it/s-cool-revision-summary Page of ...read more.

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All of the main organelles are described. Sometimes the terminology used could be a little more scientific.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 29/05/2013

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