• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Central Dogma Central Dogma is first starts with the finding that the genetic information found in chromosomes is located on the DNA, and not the protein, as McCarty and MacLoed announced to the public in 1944. It was then also backed by the E. Coli

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Nandita Natasha Naidu BioSc. 2 Dr. Re February 22, 2005 Central Dogma Central Dogma is first starts with the finding that the genetic information found in chromosomes is located on the DNA, and not the protein, as McCarty and MacLoed announced to the public in 1944. It was then also backed by the E. Coli experiment made by Hershey and Chase. Then chemist Erwin Chargaff discovered that the percent of DNA were equalities of A = T and G = C, which are now known as Chargaff's rules, which was then explained by the discovery of the double helix by Francis Crick and James Watson. RNA is the step between DNA and protein synthesis. ...read more.

Middle

Because of the double helix, it can separate into to DNA strands, and "new" nucleotides then match up with there corresponding nucleotide (T with A and G with C). These nucleotides then are connected to form the sugar-phosphate backbones, and are identical to the "old" double helix DNA strands. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that pries apart two strands of DNA and hooks together the RNA nucleotides. The RNA that results from the copying of the DNA nucleotides is messenger RNA. After RNA synthesis, translation occurs. Translation is the actual synthesis of a polypeptide, and it occurs under the direction of mRNA. mRNA is a copy of gene, which acts as a photocopy of a gene by having a sequence complementary to one strand of the DNA ...read more.

Conclusion

rRNA is the structural components of the ribosome, also has sequence complementarity's to regions of the mRNA so that the ribosome knows where to bind to an mRNA it needs to make protein from. snRNA involves in the machinery that processes RNA's as they travel between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Proteins are arranged with 20 different amino acid that can be arranged in any order to make a polypeptide of up to thousands of amino acids long, their potential for variety is extraordinary. This variety allows proteins to function as exquisitely specific enzymes that compose a cell's metabolism. An E. coli bacterium , one of the most simple biological organisms, has over a 1000 different proteins working at various times to catalyze the necessary reactions to sustain life. ?? ?? ?? ?? Naidu 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    The era of gene therapy began on Sept. 14, 1990, when the first therapeutic, genetically engineered cells were infused into a 4-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, an inherited life-threatening immune deficiency. The infused cells were lymphocytes from the girl's own blood, into which researchers had inserted copies of a missing gene that directs production of ADA.

  2. Explain how DNA fingerprinting works.

    The accuracy of the test depends on the closeness of the markers to the faulty genes. In certain cases, the test cannot give useful information to the healthy members, as there are no reliable markers available. Many of the cancer susceptibility genes that are known about today, were discovered through

  1. Chromosomes and DNA

    The alleles inherited by the zygote may be the same (called homozygous), or different (called heterozygous). Purebred individuals are homozygous for a characteristic. Many human characteristics are controlled by just one pair of genes, for example eyelash length, tongue rolling, colour of iris of eye, shape of the upper eyelid,

  2. Management style, culture & organizational structure.

    Once the colonies of cells containing the correct hybrid plasmid vector have been identified, the appropriate colonies on the master plate can be selected and grown on another plate. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) Genes can be cloned by cloning the bacterial cells that contain them, but this requires quite a lot of DNA in the first place.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work