• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Central Dogma Central Dogma is first starts with the finding that the genetic information found in chromosomes is located on the DNA, and not the protein, as McCarty and MacLoed announced to the public in 1944. It was then also backed by the E. Coli

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Nandita Natasha Naidu BioSc. 2 Dr. Re February 22, 2005 Central Dogma Central Dogma is first starts with the finding that the genetic information found in chromosomes is located on the DNA, and not the protein, as McCarty and MacLoed announced to the public in 1944. It was then also backed by the E. Coli experiment made by Hershey and Chase. Then chemist Erwin Chargaff discovered that the percent of DNA were equalities of A = T and G = C, which are now known as Chargaff's rules, which was then explained by the discovery of the double helix by Francis Crick and James Watson. RNA is the step between DNA and protein synthesis. ...read more.

Middle

Because of the double helix, it can separate into to DNA strands, and "new" nucleotides then match up with there corresponding nucleotide (T with A and G with C). These nucleotides then are connected to form the sugar-phosphate backbones, and are identical to the "old" double helix DNA strands. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that pries apart two strands of DNA and hooks together the RNA nucleotides. The RNA that results from the copying of the DNA nucleotides is messenger RNA. After RNA synthesis, translation occurs. Translation is the actual synthesis of a polypeptide, and it occurs under the direction of mRNA. mRNA is a copy of gene, which acts as a photocopy of a gene by having a sequence complementary to one strand of the DNA ...read more.

Conclusion

rRNA is the structural components of the ribosome, also has sequence complementarity's to regions of the mRNA so that the ribosome knows where to bind to an mRNA it needs to make protein from. snRNA involves in the machinery that processes RNA's as they travel between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Proteins are arranged with 20 different amino acid that can be arranged in any order to make a polypeptide of up to thousands of amino acids long, their potential for variety is extraordinary. This variety allows proteins to function as exquisitely specific enzymes that compose a cell's metabolism. An E. coli bacterium , one of the most simple biological organisms, has over a 1000 different proteins working at various times to catalyze the necessary reactions to sustain life. ?? ?? ?? ?? Naidu 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    Many obstacles must be overcome to achieve the promise of gene therapy, but its value could be immense. Genetic engineering has allowed discoveries that could not have been made any other way. One of the most important is the discovery of oncogenes, specific genes that play an important part in causing some cancers.

  2. Explain how DNA fingerprinting works.

    This is to establish what pattern of markers appears to be associated with the disease. Once the disease-associated pattern of markers is identified, it is possible to offer testing to relatives to determine who inherited this pattern, and therefore who may be at a higher risk of getting cancer for example.

  1. Chromosomes and DNA

    The alleles inherited by the zygote may be the same (called homozygous), or different (called heterozygous). Purebred individuals are homozygous for a characteristic. Many human characteristics are controlled by just one pair of genes, for example eyelash length, tongue rolling, colour of iris of eye, shape of the upper eyelid,

  2. Management style, culture & organizational structure.

    Their DNA is not incorporated into the host's chromosomes, so it is not replicated, but their genes are expressed. The adenovirus is genetically altered so that its coat proteins are not synthesised, so new virus particles cannot be assembled and the host cell is not killed..

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work