• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Charles's Law

Extracts from this document...


Charles's Law

The pressure that a gas exerts on the walls of its container is determined by the momentum of the atoms and the molecules of the gas, which in turn is determined by temperature. As the temperature increases the atoms and molecules move faster, and so exert a greater pressure on the walls. If the walls are rigid, such that the volume of the container is held constant, the relationship between pressure P and temperature T is given by P = constant x T.

However, if the walls are flexible, as the temperature increases the volume increases to maintain even pressure. This is called Charles’s Law.

Charles law states that the volume of a given amount of dry ideal gas is directly propotional to the Kelvin Temperature, provided the amount of gas and the pressure remains fixed.i.e.

V=constant ( t + 273.15)
Where t is the gas temperature on Celsius scale.

image00.pngThere are interesting points regarding the relationship between volume and temperature changes.


-273ºCimage00.pngT (ºC)

image00.pngSince gases expand and contract at a constant rate, extrapolation of this behavior shows that the effective volume goes to zero around -273 ºC.

...read more.


Charles's Law




image00.pngimage00.pngimage03.png= image04.png

Charles's law is a special case of the perfect gas equation andconcludes that the volume of any gas should extrapolate to zero at t = - 273.15 C. This law may be stated as following equation:

V=constant T                                         where T is the absolute temperature.

The aim of this investigation is to prove Charles’s law and through that to find a value for absolute zero. To prove this law, I shall carry out an experiment in which a volume of air is trapped inside a capillary tube at a constant pressure, this is attached to a thermometer and placed in water at various temperatures. According to Charles’s theory the gas will expand, and by measuring the diameter of the tube and the height of the column of air, the volume can be calculated (over a temperature range of 100°C).


Variables -


...read more.


Rearranged as: a = F
showing that acceleration is indirectly proportional to the mass if the force releasing the ball bearing remains constant. Therefore, if the mass is increased, the acceleration of the ball bearing will be decreased during its trajectory.

Theory for horizontal motion:

Loss of PE = Gain of PE

mgh = ½ mv2

2mgh = v2

   v = Ö(2gh)

It is range we are trying to find out:

s = ½ (u+v) t = ut = vt

R = Ö(2gh) = Ö(2H/g) (from equation: ‘time of flight´)

R = Ö(4hH)

R2 = 4hH

From this derived equation a testable hypothesis can now be made. By comparing the derived formula with the formula for a straight line graph, which shows similar properties, it is thought that as height increases, range will also increase.

R2 = 4 x h x H

R2 = (4 x h) x H + 0

y = m x + c

This comparison of equations shows that if Range2 were plotted against height (h) then a straight line graph through the origin would be the result. It can therefore be said that Range2 is directly proportional to height, considering that height (H) is constant. The mass and size of the ball bearing must also be kept constant. To prove this, a graph of Range2 on the y-axis and height (h) on the x-axis must be plotted and a straight line graph running through the origin must be produced from the data. This would show the theory and equations used to be correct.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Mechanics & Radioactivity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Mechanics & Radioactivity essays

  1. Free essay

    The acceleration of a ball down various inclines

    3 star(s)

    Using trigonometry, figure out the height of the wooden support which will be placed under the plank. If starting off with the 10� plank, the support will be 34.73cm long (It would make more sense to start off at the 10� plank, as you will only need to shorten the

  2. Peer reviewed

    Aim:To find out whether or not the angle of the ramp affects the acceleration ...

    3 star(s)

    in both sides of the equation; it can be cancelled out as nothing new results from it; thus making the equation for acceleration: a?=gxsin?. This equation can be considered perfect if it were not for 2 factors: Friction and Air Resistance.

  1. Investigating a ski jump

    H (cm) 4H (cm) R² (h x 4H) R (VR²) 5 92 368 1840 42.9 10 92 368 3680 60.7 15 92 368 5520 74.3 20 92 368 7360 85.8 25 92 368 9200 95.9 30 92 368 11040 105.1 35 92 368 12880 113.5 40 92 368 14720 121.3

  2. Free essay

    CIRCULAR MOTION - revision notes and calculations

    Another student times a certain number of revolutions of the bung, 50 say. (3) By moving the marker, the length l of the string can be varied and the relation between l and ? (angular velocity) can be obtained as follow: T cos?

  1. Investigating the Inverse Square Law

    This is due to electrons being emitted from the cathode by the positive ions which arrive there. Instead, the tube is filled with argon mixed with a halogen vapour which quenches, reduces the intensity, the discharge quickly, ensuring that the registered radiation does not affect the recording of other ionising particles.

  2. Investigatin a ski jump

    The ball bearing is taken as a point, as the motion of a rolling ball differs from anything else. 3. Gravity does not affect the horizontal velocity Prediction/Hypothesis I have based my prediction on the calculated formula R=V(4hH) The height of the table H is measured to be 92cm and is to remain constant h (cm)

  1. Use of technology in a hospital radiology department. The department of imaging is one ...

    the body they have to inform the radiographer as in same cases you may not be able to have the examination. For female patient who are or might be pregnant you must make sure the doctor referring you or a member of staff in the radiology department knows as soon as possible in advance.

  2. Multi-bladed Pumps. Does the number of propellor blades affect the efficiency of a ...

    Stand well back from the saucepan and do not move it while the water is hot. Use a heat-insulating towel to manipulate the hot polypropene. Electric circuit in general Risk of fire from short circuiting etc. Use insulated wires, keep connections clean and dry, and always supervise the apparatus while current is flowing.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work