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chemistry limewater experiment

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Introduction

Chemistry-AS-Assessed Practical (Skills P and A) The aim of this experiment is to determine the concentration of limewater, in g dm-3, as accurately as possible using hydrochloric acid, HCl. In the experiment the hydrochloric acid must be diluted and then a titration can be done to find the concentration of limewater. The hydrochloric acid must be diluted as its concentration is too high. The concentration of the hydrochloric acid is exactly 2.00 mol dm-3 but it has to be to a similar concentration a calcium hydroxide so the titration can be done. The first step is to dilute the HCl and then the second step is to perform titration of the calcium hydroxide. The equation: 2HCl + Ca(OH)2 � CaCl2 + 2H20 This equation is a neutralisation reaction and will be used for the titration so the HCl that will be added to the limewater, that contains calcium hydroxide, will be neutralised. Equipments Burette- For measuring HCl as it is accurate. It can measure to 0.05cm3. Conical flask- For solutions to react in. ...read more.

Middle

The concentration for the HCl is 2molar, this makes it an irritant so you have to be careful when using it and make sure you are wearing eye protection, gloves and a lab coat. Ca(OH) 2 is also an irritant so precautions should be taken when dealing with it such as wearing eye protection, gloves and a lab coat. Quantities and concentration of reagents used In the experiment 250cm3 of limewater is provided which contains approximately 1dm-3 . With the information you can work out the concentration of limewater(Ca(OH)2. The relative molecular mass, Mr, of (Ca(OH)2) = 40 + 2(16 + 1) = 74 Then you use moles = mass / Mr which gives you 1 / 74 = 0.0135 mol dm-3 The HCL has a concentration of 2 mol dm-3 which is too high and has to be diluted to around 0.02 mol dm-3 so it is similar to the concentration of limewater so it can be neutralised in the titration. . Method Diluting the acid 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

6. Shake the beaker constantly so the reaction can take place. 7. Stop when the solution turns yellow as this is the point of where the calcium hydroxide is neutralised. 8. The value of HCl should be noted down as this can be used to work out the concentration of calcium hydroxide. 9. Repeat the experiment until three concordant values is produced. The average of the results produced can then be used to work out the concentration of the limewater. This is done by firstly working out the moles of HCl by, Moles = concentration / volume This gives, Moles = 2/volume of HCl acid used This gives you the moles of HCL used so this will allow you to do the calculations to work out the number of moles of calcium hydroxide which is, Moles of HCl / 2 = Moles of calcium hydroxide The mole of calcium hydroxide can be used with the volume of calcium hydroxide used to find the concentration using, Concentration = moles / volume To convert the mol dm-3 to gdm-3 , you have to multiply by the molar mass. Sources 1. CGP AS-Level Chemistry The Revision Guide pg18 2. Cambridge Advanced Sciences Chemistry 1 book pg25-28 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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