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Chemistry Module 1 revision notes - salts and redox reactions

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Introduction

Chemistry Module 1 Salts - A salt is an ionic compound with the following features: The positive ion or cation in a salt in a salt is usually a metal ion or an ammonium ion NH4 The negative ion or anion in a salt is derived from an acid Formation of Salts: Salts can be produced by neutralising acids with: - Carbonates - Bases - Alkalis Salts from bases: Acids react with bases to form a salt and water Salts from Carbonates: Acids react with carbonates to form a salt, CO2 and water Salts from alkalis: Acids react with alkalis to form a salt and water Salts from metals: Salts can be formed from the reaction of reactive metals with acids. There are known as redox reactions. Ammonia salts and fertilises: - Ammonia salts are used as artificial fertilisers - Ammonia salts are formed when acids are neutralised by aqueous ...read more.

Middle

Na+, Mg2+ Combined Flurine -1 NaF,CaF2, ALF3 Molecular ions in a carbonate ion CO32- the overall charge is 2- - The sum of the oxidation numbers must add to the overall charge - There are 3 oxygen atoms, each with an oxidation number of -2. This gives a total contribution of -6 -The oxidation number of carbon must be +4 to giv the overall charge of 2- Oxyanions - Oxyanions are negative ions that contain one element along with oxygen - The names of oxyanions usually end in -ate to indicate oxygen - As with transition element ions, an element may form oxyanions in which the element has different oxidation numbers. Without the oxidation number the name would be ambiguious. For example: NO2- Nitrate(III) - N: oxidation number = +3 NO3- Nitrate(V) ...read more.

Conclusion

Oxidation numbers in a redox reactions Oxidation and reduction can also be described in terms of exidation number: - Reduction is a decrease in oxidation number - Oxidation is an increase in oxidation number You can identify the oxidation and reduction processes using oxidation numbers. You assign an oxidation number to each atom in a oxidation reaction. You can then follow any changes to these oxidation numbers. Mg+Cl2-------------------------------------------->MgCl2 0-------------------------------------------------------->2+ 0---------------------------------------------------->-1 0---------------------------------------------------->-1 The oxidation and reduction processes for the reaction of magnesium and chlorine are shown--> Mg+2HCL---------------------------------------->MgCl2 + H2 0-------------------------------------------------------->2+ +1---------------------------------------------------------------->0 +1---------------------------------------------------------------->0 Mg+H2SO4---------------------------------------->MgSO4 + H2 0----------------------------------------------------------->2+ +1--------------------------------------------------------------------->0 +1--------------------------------------------------------------------->0 Redox reactions of metals with acids Reactive metals react with many acids in redox reactions. -The metal is oxidisedforming positive ions. -The hydrogen in the acid is reduced forming the element hydrogen and a gas Reaction of magnesium metal with dilute hydrochloric acid Reaction of magnesium with dilute sulphuric acid Acids react with reactive metals by metal+acid-->slat+H2 ...read more.

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This report contains comprehensive notes on acid and base reactions as well as redox reactions suitable for an AS chemist. They are set out in note form, often bullet pointed, making them easy to use as revision notes.

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 17/06/2012

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