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chemistry of renewable resources

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction Everything we need - our resources have come from our planet, whether it is food, water, metals or fuels. It is known that if we use up any one of the earths resources then we will be without it forever. In this report I will look at some general principles of how non-renewable and renewable resources are used and the effect this can have on our environment. The resources that are most important to us are coal, metals, oil, gas, petrol and limestone. Without these we will be helpless. Also, these can only be replaced by nature after many million years. We call these non-renewable resources. Many industries rely on these as source of raw materials and will face problems unless new sources or new manufacturing techniques are found. We cannot find any techniques because most of the earths materials are so mixed up, that we can't sort them out and make them useful. On the other hand renewable resources renew themselves more quickly such as plants grown for food, and fuel. But these can be used up too fast if we do not use them carefully. These resources are in continuous supply, for instance wind and solar energy. Scientists are working very hard on developing new ways to use these renewable resources. But first industry needs to make more products that use the safe environmentally energy like solar powered vehicles. In the future they could also include the use of ocean thermal, wave, and tidal action technologies. Utility renewable resource applications include bulk electricity generation, on-site electricity generation, distributed electricity generation, non-grid-connected generation, and demand-reduction (energy efficiency) technologies. Fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, are a non-renewable source of energy. Formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago, fossil fuels are found in deposits beneath the earth. The fuels are burned to release the chemical energy that is stored within this resource. ...read more.

Middle

Soap cleans by acting as an emulsifier. Basically, soap allows oil and water to mix so that oily grime can be removed during rinsing. Detergents were developed in response to the shortage of the animal and vegetable fats used to make soap during World War I and World War II. Detergents are primarily surfactants, which could be produced easily from petrochemicals. Soaps and detergents are made from long molecules that contain a head and tail. These molecules are called surfactants; the diagram below represents a surfactant molecule. The head of the molecule is attracted to water (hydrophilic) and the tail is attracted to grease and dirt (hydrophobic). When the detergent molecules meet grease on clothes, the tails are drawn into the grease but the heads still sit in the water. The attractive forces between the head groups and the water are so strong that the grease is lifted away from the surface. The blob of grease is now completely surrounded by detergent molecules and is broken into smaller pieces, which are washed away by the water. You can find out more about how detergents work in our Super molecules activity. The detergent molecules also help to make the washing process more effective by reducing the surface tension of the water. Surface tension is the force, which helps a blob of water on a surface hold its shape and not spread out. The surfactant molecules of the detergent break apart these forces and make water behave, well, wetter! The advantages of detergents are * Detergents are renewable and are made from plants and animal oils * Cleanabillity of detergents is equal to soapless detergents * Soaps are produced more quickly and more cheaply then synthetic soap The advantages of using detergents are they quickly clear the main source of damage to wild life i.e. the presence and high toxicity of the thick oil on the surface of the water and beaches. ...read more.

Conclusion

I measured the lathering potential by seeing how high the bubbles went Results Practical one and two Soaps and detergents PH Detergents 11.79 Soap flakes 10 Our soap 9.45 Fairy liquid 8.17 Practical 3 Soaps and detergents Lathering potential Washing up liquids 8 cm Soap flakes 9 cm Evaluation Our soaps was more alkaline and in industry is would be refined and perfume would be added and colour to take off access solution and make it desirable. Our soap had the most alkaline and fairly liquid the least soap flakes had the highest lathering potential then soap flakes and washing up liquid were the same. I encountered many problems during this experiment. I used a PH probe rather then universal indicator and litmus paper to get more accurate results. I also didn't repeat my experiments, which I should have go give improved results. Colour chemistry Humans have used colour from prehistoric times - from decorating their bodies to painting the caves in which they lived. These colours all came from natural sources, but for the past 150 years, we have made use of man-made colours. But the raw materials to make these synthetic colours will one day run out, so research is now being carried out into the use of natural colours once more. Materials * Polyester * Cotton * Wool * Acid red * Cochineal PH4 * Cochineal PH5 Method I began by cutting my materials up in equal parts. I then out them in 20ml of the solution either acid red, or the cochineals. I then left them in the solutions for 5 minutes and recorded the results when they dried out. See attached sheet for results Conclusion From all my results I can see that the acid red are the best dye. However it is a non-renewable source. Man-made dyes are the best. I that the experiment was straightforward to carry out and easy to do. However I think that I didn't cut my pieces into equal parts. Hence making the test unfair. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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