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Chemistry Open-book Paper - Periodic table and Atomic structure

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Chemistry Open-book Paper In 1817 a scientist by the name of Johann Dobereiner was the first to attempt to classify elements using their relative atomic mass. He found that some elements had similar properties, and put them into a group called a triad, for instance Li, Na and K. He found that the middle element in each group had a mass which is equal to the average of the other two. This also applies to several other groups. The British chemist, John Newlands arranged the elements in order of relative atomic mass in 1866. H Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K Ca Newlands noticed that similar elements appeared at regular intervals in the list. He arranged the elements in the following columns: H Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K Ca Cr Ti Ma Fe Newlands drew up a law of octaves where by he compared his chemical 'octaves' with musical octaves. It was a Russian chemist, Dimitri Mendeleev, who developed Newlands idea and persuaded chemists to use it. ...read more.


This atomic excitement causes the electrons to gain energy and go up energy levels. Once it begins to lose energy and return to ground state, the electrons return to their initial levels giving off energy in the form of radiation. A spectrometer is used to give lines that are called monochromatic lines. This radiation is usually visible, infra-red or ultraviolet. The colour and wavelength is used to determine the element. This is Bohr's theory created by Danish scientist Niels Bohr. For instance with hydrogen the one electron can go up energy levels (shells) 1-3 therefore there would be three lines in the visible, and one ultra violet and 3 infra-red lines in the spectrum. This spectrum was produced by exciting a glass tube of hydrogen gas with about 5000 volts from a transformer This UNILAC accelerator was created by a team called GSI. The linear accelerator fires a beam of heavy ion bombarding a stable element to attempt to fuse them together and create a new element, this requires sufficient violence to overcome the natural repulse of the nuclei. The element Ds 110 was created by directing a high-energy beam of nickel-62 atoms generated from the GSI heavy-ion accelerator, known as UNILAC, at lead-208 targets on the circumference of a wheel rotating at 1,125 rpm. ...read more.


In the early 1800's scientists started using new laboratory techniques to find new elements. Within 100 years the known elements were doubled. Until recently scientists have been working mainly on finding the electron configuration, ions and reactivity. As shown earlier this electron study has evolved to spectroscopy and various other things. Yet lately more attention has been paid into the nucleus of the atom, and they have discovered shells and sub shells that can determine the stability of an element. In the last decade scientists are no longer searching for existing elements, but manufacturing them. Unfortunately they are at such a level that the elements that they are making only last fractions of a second. Many scientists find this pointless since there can't be any real application of these elements. Although in theory, element 114 if made at the right isotope may last for years, since its neutron and proton both fill their outer shell ('double magic') and therefore it's very stable, has not been found at such a stable state yet. The problem is that when discovering new elements the next one is 3 to 4 times more difficult. These days scientists have found particles that are even smaller than electrons. They think that all sub-atomic particles are themselves made up of yet smaller particles called Quarks. ...read more.

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