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AS and A Level: Inorganic Chemistry

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Top tips for writing reactions

  1. 1 Remember to balance the charges on any ionic compounds. The common ions are NO3-, SO42-, OH- and CO32-.
  2. 2 Do not forget to put state symbols on all of your balanced reactions.
  3. 3 Each side of the reaction must have the same number of atoms on it. Think about a balanced seesaw.
  4. 4 Your three main acids that you will use have the formulae HNO3 (nitric acid), H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) and HCl (hydrochloric acid).
  5. 5 Remember that all metal hydroxides and metal oxides are bases. This will help you when using word equations to figure out your products.

Five common mistakes students make when studying inorganic chemistry

  1. 1 When observing a gas being produced, you would not write “I saw a gas” as most gases are invisible. Instead you should write “I saw bubbling / fizzing / effervescence”.
  2. 2 When asked to write a word equation, students often write a symbol equation and vice versa. This will get you no marks in the exam.
  3. 3 - When asked for “standard conditions” people often say “room temperature”. This is not sufficient. You must say 25 degrees celsius (298K). Other standard conditions you must know are 1 atmosphere of pressure and concentrations of 1 mol dm-.
  4. 4 If you are asked to state a colour change you must state the initial and final colour.
  5. 5 Students often give group 2 metals a 1+ charge. Remember that all group two metals (Be, Mg, Ca, St, Ba, Ra) have a 2+ charge.

Five word equations that you must know

  1. 1 Acid + base / alkali = salt + water (eg HCl + NaOH becomes NaCl + H2O)
  2. 2 Metal carbonate = metal oxide + carbon dioxide (eg CaCO3 becomes CaO + CO2)
  3. 3 Metal + oxygen = metal oxide (2Mg + O2 becomes 2MgO)
  4. 4 Metal + water = metal hydroxide + hydrogen (eg 2Na + 2H2O becomes 2NaOH + H2)
  5. 5 Metal oxide + water = metal hydroxide (eg CaO + H2O becomes Ca(OH)2)

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
  • Peer Reviewed essays 9
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation of Enzyme Activity

    5 star(s)

    Its like going into an empty closet with someone relative to going into an empty auditorium with someone. The chances of interaction within the closet are greater than the chances within the auditorium. So less energy required to move around to increase the chances of bumping into one another. What is the Active Site? The active site of an enzyme is the binding site where catalysis occurs. The structure and chemical properties of the active site allow the recognition and binding of the substrate.

    • Word count: 1648
  2. Peer reviewed

    Investigation to determine the Relative atomic mass of Li

    5 star(s)

    1 2 3 End Burette vol (ml) 46.70 43.95 43.70 Start Burette vol (ml) 06.50 01.65 01.30 Amount used (ml) 40.20 42.30 42.40 Using the two best titres (within 0.1 ml), on average 25.0cm3 of LiOH required 42.35cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 HCl to titrate. Calculate the number of moles of HCl used: LiOH(aq) + HCl(aq) --> LiCl(aq) + H2O(l) - 42.30 + 42.40 / 2 = 42.35cm3 - Average titre = 42.35 cm3 - 42.35cm3 = 0.04235 dm3 We are using HCl of 0.1 mol dm-3 and hence No.

    • Word count: 1781
  3. Peer reviewed

    Analysis of sulphur dioxide content in wine.doc

    4 star(s)

    4.> Add about 10cm3 of 2M H2SO4 to the mixture and then few drops of starch solution as indicator. Quickly, titrate the mixture with 0.0057M iodine solution. 5.> Record the titre required to produce pale blue colour. 6.> Repeat steps 2-5 for 2-3 times. Data Analysis Trial 1st 2nd Final reading /cm3 3.05 12.80 26.30 Initial reading /cm3 0.25 9.70 23.25 Volume of I2 added /cm3 2.80 3.10 3.05 Average volume of I2 added /cm3 3.075 Concentration of I2 solution: 0.0057 M Volume of wine bottle: 750 cm3 Number of moles of 0.0057M I2 in the titre: (3.075)(0.0057) = 0.01753 mmol Number of moles of SO2 in the 25cm3 sample: 0.01753 mmol Number of moles of SO2 in the bottle of wine: 0.01753 x 30 = 0.5259 mmol Mass of SO2 in the bottle of wine: (0.5259)(32+16x2)

    • Word count: 1042
  4. Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of a Given Sample of Waste Water

    Titration of standard K2Cr2O7 with FAS Trial 1 2 3 Initial volume of FAS (ml) 3.30 13.30 23.30 Final volume of FAS(ml) 13.30 23.30 33.30 Volume of FAS used(ml) 10.00 10.00 10.00 Average volume of FAS solution used = (10.00+10.00+10.00) / 3 = 10.00 ml 2) For the blank solution, 25.20ml of FAS was used to titrated it to reach the end-point. 3) Titration of excess K2Cr2O7 in the sample with FAS Initial Volume of FAS (ml) = 0.00 Final Volume of FAS (ml)

    • Word count: 1455
  5. Aim: To determine the activation energy of the reaction between bromide ion and bromate(V) ion in acid solution.

    Apparatus: Quantity Beaker 1 Boiling tube 2 Stop watch 1 -10o-110oC thermometer 1 Burette 3 V. Procedure: 1. Place 10.00 cm3 of 0.01 M phenol solution, 10.00 cm3 solution A and 10 drops of methyl red indicator into a boiling tube. 2. Place 5.00 cm3 of 0.5 M H2SO4 in the second boiling tube. 3. Place both boiling tubes into a large beaker of water which is maintained between 49?C - 51?C by careful warming. Allow the contents of the tubes to reach the temperature of the water bath (?

    • Word count: 1224
  6. Determination of the formula of complex ion

    This can be done by titrating nickel(II) solution against EDTA with murexide as indicator. Initially the mixture in the conical flask should appears yellowish green due to the domination of the green nickel-water complex over a trace amount of yellow Nickel-murexide complex. When EDTA are gradually added, the solution should start to turn blue due to the increasing concentration of Nickel-EDTA complex. When all the Nickel-murexide complex are finally replaced by Nickel-EDTA complex, a pale blue colour should appear, any further addition of EDTA would cause the solution turns dark blue and then violet, which is due to the formation of the original murexide, and this indicates the end-point of the titration.

    • Word count: 1094
  7. Determination of DO & BOD in a water sample

    Remember to fill the flasks completely with water without trapping any air bubbles. 2.> To one of the volumetric flask, add about 1 cm3 of MnSO4 solution well below the surface with a dropper. 3.> Similarly, introduce about 1 cm3 of alkaline KI solution to the same flask. Be sure that no air becomes entrapped and then invert the stopped flask to distribute the precipitate uniformly. 4.> When the precipitates has settled at least 2 cm below the stopper, introduce about 1 cm3 of conc.H2SO4 well below the surface.

    • Word count: 1053
  8. Rates of Chemical Reactions

    We prepared for the lab by obtaining all the necessary materials in the equipment list. 2. With the funnels, we poured 50mL of the following reactants: Acetone, HCL, and Iodine; in their respective burette. 3. In the Erlenmeyer flask, we carefully poured 10mL of Acetone from the burette, 10mL of HCL, and 20mL of distilled water. Once we had those three in the Erlenmeyer flask we poured 10mL of iodine and started the timing as soon as the iodine touched the three solutions.

    • Word count: 1048
  9. Determination of the formula of hydrated Iron (II) Sulphate crystals (FeSO4xH2O)

    Therefore the following masses can be calculated: Mass number Substances Mass number calculation Mass calculation (g) Mass (g) 5 H2O 2 - 4.d) 40.34 - 39.67 0.67 6 FeSO4 3 - 5 1.48 - 0.67 0.81 To work out the formula of the FeSO4xH2O: Moles of FeSO4 Mr = 56 + 32 + (16 x 4) = 152 number of moles = mass Mr n = 0.81 = 0.00533 moles 152 Moles of H2O Mr = 18 n = mass n = 0.67 = 0.0372 moles Mr 18 Empirical formula To work out molar ratio of FeSO4 to H2O (value of x): 1 x 0.0372 = 6.98 0.00533 x = 6.98 therefore the formula is = FeSO4(H2O)7 Method 2 1.

    • Word count: 1230
  10. Gas Chromatography

    The choice of carrier gas is often dependant upon the type of detector which is used. The carrier gas system also contains a molecular sieve to remove water and other impurities. Sample injection port For optimum column efficiency, the sample should not be too large, and should be introduced onto the column as a "plug" of vapor - slow injection of large samples causes band broadening and loss of resolution. The most common injection method is where a micro syringe is used to inject sample through a rubber septum into a flash vaporizer port at the head of the column.

    • Word count: 1200
  11. Planning an investigation to determine the reactivity of HalogenoAlkanes

    Therefore, of the three halogenoalkanes, that containing Chlorine should be the most reactive. Bond Bond Enthalpy kJ mol-1 C-Cl 340 C-Br 280 C-I 240 There is, however, a contradicting theory. When looking at bond strength, C-I needs to be applied with the lowest amount of energy in comparison to the other two for it to be broken. Understandably, this greatly contradicts the previously given theory according to bond polarity. Within any reaction that occurs, the reactants must collide with sufficient energy to react, which is known as activation energy. There are more likely to be more molecules with the required activation energy to break the C-I bond than the C-Cl at a given state, meaning that a halogenoalkane containing Iodine is the most reactive.

    • Word count: 1194
  12. Chem Lab report. Objective: To determine the concentration of potassium manganate(VII) solution using ethanedioic acid as a primary standard in volumetric analysis (redox titration)

    solution. Potassium manganate(VII) solution does not oxidize ethanedioic acid at low temperatures. As a result, the solution should be heated to 60? in order to lead a reaction to occur. The above 2 half equations were combined to one equation: 2MnO4- (aq) + 6H+ (aq) + 5(COOH)2 (aq) 8H2O (l) + 2Mn2+ (aq) + 10CO2 (g) From the above equation, The volume of potassium manganate(VII) solution used in the titration was measured by taking the difference of burette reading before the reaction and that when the color of reaction mixture turns from colorless to a permanent light purple. It was then used in calculating the concentration of potassium manganate(VII) solution. ? no.

    • Word count: 1252
  13. Deriving a Solubility Curve

    1) From the graph of the solubility curve, it can be determined that: a) the solubility of potassium nitrate at 50�C is approximately 74g/ 100g of H2O. b) the temperature at which the solubility of potassium nitrate is 80g/100g of H2O, is approximately 53.5�C. c) the maximum amount of potassium nitrate that would dissolve in 100g of water at 60�C is 90g. d) the temperature at which 20g of potassium in 25g of water (80g/100g of H2O) needs to be heated in order to completely dissolve must be greater than 53.5�C. (53.5�C is the temperature at which first signs of crystallisation occur.

    • Word count: 1256
  14. To study the action of a buffer solution

    Set the meter to read 7.0 . 4. Place the beaker under the burette containing NaOH and, making sure the alkali does not fall directly on to the electrode, add 1 drop of 0.1M NaOH. Stir gently to ensure thorough mixing & record the pH in Table 1. 5. Add more NaOH to make the total volume added 1.0 cm3. Measure & record the pH in Table 1. 6. Add more NaOH to make the total volume added 5.0 cm3.

    • Word count: 1611
  15. easy e

    In addition Pip sees Joe as his equal "I always treated him as a larger species of child and as no more than my equal". Pip feels as if Joe is the only one who cares for him and he feels like he can trust Joe. He also looks up to Joe as he is the only manly figure that Pip aspires to be. Although Joe is the only one that seems to care for Pip, he does not play an important role in society or in the Gargery household as Mrs.

    • Word count: 1170
  16. Additivity of Heats of Reaction: Hesss Law Design and Data Collection

    � 0.2 (�C) � 0.2 (�C) 1 100 � 0.5mL of 2.93 21 22 H2O 2 100 � 0.5mL of 2.87 20.9 26.5 0.50M HCl 50.0 � 0.5mL 3 of 1.0M HCl ; N/A 20.4 26.7 50.0 � 0.5mL of 1.0M NaOH Observation Notes: *Since these data is collected by us (Laura and Rhona), we have some observation notes about reaction 1, 2 and 3. Reaction 1: Temperature change is really slow. Reaction 2: Temperature raises a lot, but not very fast. Reaction 3: Temperature increases very fast.

    • Word count: 1093
  17. Aluminium and its Extraction

    The alumina is dissolved in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6). Then mixture is then heated to approximately 980oC, (aluminium oxide usually melts at a higher temperature, but due to the added aluminium fluoride, a considerable amount of energy is saved). The mixture is then placed in a carbon lined bath and a large electrical current is passed through it. This forms aluminium at the cathode and oxygen gas at the carbon anode. The oxygen gas reacts with the anode to give off carbon dioxide gas.

    • Word count: 1615
  18. The preparation, analysis, and reactions of an ethanedioate complex of iron

    Then a solution of 5.08g oxalic acid dihydrate in 30cm3 of water was added. The mixture was heated cautiously, with continuous stirring to boil. Then the yellow precipitate of hydrated iron(II) oxalate was allow to settle. The supernatant liquid was poured off and the precipitate was washed once with hot water by decantation. A hot solution of 7.49g of potassium oxalate monohydrate in 20cm3 of water was added and the mixture was cooled to 40?. 20cm3 of 6% hydrogen peroxide solution was added a few drops at a time with continuous stirring. The temperature must be kept below 50?.

    • Word count: 1991
  19. experiment to find the concentration of the ethanedioic acid

    * Ensure that the acid mixture is properly mixed by shaking. Then fill a graduated pipette with 25cm3 of the acid mixture and pipette this into a 250cm3 conical flask. * You will not need to add any indicator as KMnO4 is self indicating; the end point has been reached when a permanent pale pink colour appears. * This reaction will only take place above 60 degrees Celsius, therefore heat the conical flask before titrating to a little over 60 degrees, using a Bunsen burner.

    • Word count: 1052

    You should wear all the safety equipment at all times during the experiment. Eye Protection: Make sure that your eyes are fully protected. Goggles should be worn at all times during the experiment in the laboratory. Laboratory Coats: Lab coats should be worn during experiment to avoid damage to your clothes and skin. Laboratory environment: Experiment should be taken place in a wide space and try to avoid having any unwanted stuff around you as it can come in contact with the chemicals and cause damage.

    • Word count: 1025
  21. Energy and Rates Analysis of Chemical Reactions

    The molar enthalpy for Magnesium should only vary because of human error. All three calculated enthalpies should be very close, because the molar enthalpy of Magnesium is dependant upon only Magnesium's properties, not the other reactants'. Materials * 1 mol/L Aqueous Ethanoic acid * 1 mol/L Aqueous Hydrochloric acid * 1 mol/L Aqueous Sulfuric acid * Magnesium shavings * 3 calorimeters * 3 stop watches * Three 50mL graduated cylinders * Three 100mL beakers * Digital scale * Safety glasses Procedure 1. Apply safety glasses, and gather all apparatus. 2. Using the digital scale, measure out three samples of approximately 1/4 g of magnesium.

    • Word count: 1577
  22. determination of the percentage of oxalate in iron (II) oxalate by redox titration

    If coloured or oxidized cations are present, the procedure will be more complicated. In this experiment, iron (II) ions in fact also participate in the redox reaction: Fe2+ � Fe3+ + e- Procedures 1) Plastic bag with iron (II) oxalate crystal was provided. 2) The weigh of the plastic bag with crystal was taken. 3) Iron (II) oxalate crystal inside the plastic bag was put into a beaker. 4) The weigh of the plastic bag without crystal was taken. 5) About 150 cm3 of 2M sulphuric acid was added to the beaker. 6)

    • Word count: 1828
  23. Decomposition of Copper Carbonate on Heating

    The gas syringes available are also too small, with a maximum capacity of 100 cm3 or 0.1 dm3. I will aim to collect a maximum of 80cm3 of gas, to allow some error before the maximum capacity of the gas syringe is reached. Due to the fact that the first reaction will produce a greater volume of gas, and the figure being taken into consideration is the maximum volume produced, the first reaction is what shall be used to calculate sensible quantities for the reactant.

    • Word count: 1304
  24. an experiement to test for anions and cations

    It is an irreversible reaction, meaning that it is impossible to reverse the reaction back to how it originally was. Hypothesis It is to be expected that it will be possible to identify each unknown cation and anion by various testing methods. Safety assessment Goggles Should be worn to prevent any spillages coming into contact with the eyes Lab coat Should be worn to prevent any spillages on clothes. Glass ware Correct procedures to be followed for cleaning up, if any breakages occur.

    • Word count: 1286
  25. ion exchange

    Hypothesis It is expected, that it will be possible to purify contaminated water using ion exchange Safety assessment Goggles Prevents from any splashes getting in the eyes. Lab coats Prevents staining of clothes. Stools and bags Should be put away, preventing trips and falls. Pipettes Must be handled carefully, as the tip is fragile and can break Liquids Care must be taken when measuring and the correct procedures must be carried out when cleaning up any spillages. Sodium Hydroxide is an irritant, so hand washing is important. Copper Sulphate and Lead Nitrate is harmful, and Nitric Acid is corrosive.

    • Word count: 1007

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