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AS and A Level: Inorganic Chemistry

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Top tips for writing reactions

  1. 1 Remember to balance the charges on any ionic compounds. The common ions are NO3-, SO42-, OH- and CO32-.
  2. 2 Do not forget to put state symbols on all of your balanced reactions.
  3. 3 Each side of the reaction must have the same number of atoms on it. Think about a balanced seesaw.
  4. 4 Your three main acids that you will use have the formulae HNO3 (nitric acid), H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) and HCl (hydrochloric acid).
  5. 5 Remember that all metal hydroxides and metal oxides are bases. This will help you when using word equations to figure out your products.

Five common mistakes students make when studying inorganic chemistry

  1. 1 When observing a gas being produced, you would not write “I saw a gas” as most gases are invisible. Instead you should write “I saw bubbling / fizzing / effervescence”.
  2. 2 When asked to write a word equation, students often write a symbol equation and vice versa. This will get you no marks in the exam.
  3. 3 - When asked for “standard conditions” people often say “room temperature”. This is not sufficient. You must say 25 degrees celsius (298K). Other standard conditions you must know are 1 atmosphere of pressure and concentrations of 1 mol dm-.
  4. 4 If you are asked to state a colour change you must state the initial and final colour.
  5. 5 Students often give group 2 metals a 1+ charge. Remember that all group two metals (Be, Mg, Ca, St, Ba, Ra) have a 2+ charge.

Five word equations that you must know

  1. 1 Acid + base / alkali = salt + water (eg HCl + NaOH becomes NaCl + H2O)
  2. 2 Metal carbonate = metal oxide + carbon dioxide (eg CaCO3 becomes CaO + CO2)
  3. 3 Metal + oxygen = metal oxide (2Mg + O2 becomes 2MgO)
  4. 4 Metal + water = metal hydroxide + hydrogen (eg 2Na + 2H2O becomes 2NaOH + H2)
  5. 5 Metal oxide + water = metal hydroxide (eg CaO + H2O becomes Ca(OH)2)

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
  • Peer Reviewed essays 9
  1. Chemistry - Data Analysis

    As its density decreases it becomes lighter and these atoms will rise if they happen to be liquid or gas molecules. As the hot molecules rise they are replaced by cold molecules which are heavier. This results in a convection current forming and heat is thus transferred. 2. Conduction: Again as a material is heated the individual atoms gain energy and vibrate faster. They collide with atoms next to them and impart energy to the neighboring atoms and these gain more energy and become hotter.

    • Word count: 2148
  2. The Chemistry oh Phosphorous

    One of its current processes of production is by heating one of its compounds 'phosphate', with silica and coke in a furnace. Phosphorus exists in 3 main allotropic forms: white, red and black. Allotropes are forms of an element with different physical and chemical properties. White phosphorus in its pure form, is a transparent waxy solid, however it is sometimes yellow due to traces of red phosphorus impurities that exist within it. White phosphorus is extremely volatile in air and so spontaneously bursts into flames (pyrophoric - it self ignites in air), forming Phosphorus Pentoxide: P4O5 2 , which is the reason for it being stored underwater at room temperature; it's insolubility in water allows this to happen.

    • Word count: 2294
  3. Lab report Determination of Enthalpy Change of Neutralization

    Results & Calculations Time (s) / Temperature ( ) Reaction 1 Reaction 2 Reaction 3 Reaction 4 Reaction 5 Reaction 6 0 24.8 24.0 24.5 23.8 24.2 24.0 5 31.0 31.5 30.0 32.0 44.0 35.0 10 34.5 34.5 33.0 35.0 50.0 36.5 15 35.5 35.5 33.5 36.0 53.0 37.0 20 36.0 35.8 34.0 36.2 53.5 37.0 25 36.2 35.8 34.0 36.5 53.5 37.0 30 36.2 36.0 34.0 36.5 53.5 37.0 35 36.2 36.0 34.0 36.5 53.2 37.0 40 36.2 36.0 34.0 36.2 53.0 37.0 45 36.2 36.0 34.0 36.2 53.0 37.0 50 36.2 35.8 34.0 36.2 53.0 36.8 55 36.0 35.8 34.0 36.0 52.8 36.8 60 36.0 35.8 34.0

    • Word count: 2806
  4. Bleaching experiment. Estimation of available chlorine in commercial bleaching solution.

    --> Cl2(g) + H2O(l) Cl2(g) + 2I- (aq) +2H+ (aq)--> I2(aq) +H2O(l) + 2Cl- (aq) I2(aq) + 2S2O32-(aq) --> 2I-(aq) +S4O62-(aq) Requirements Volumetric flask(250cm3). Burette(50cm3). Pipette(25cm3). Pipette filler. Page1 Conical flask (250cm3). Dropper. Wash bottle. White tile. Burette stand. Balance. Weighing bottle. Beakers. Measuring cylinders. (50cm3, 100cm3) Commercial bleaching solution. Potassium iodide crystals. Ethanoic acid ( about 1M ) Standard sodium thiosulphate solution Starch solution (Freshly prepared). Procedure 1. Volumetric flask, conical flask, burette, pipette, weighing bottle, beakers were washed with tap water. 2. Step (1) was repeated but with deionized water at this time. 3. The tissues were used to dry the apparatus.

    • Word count: 2460
  5. analysis of two commercial brands of bleaching solution

    S4O62- In this redox titration, potassium iodide in the acidic medium acts as a reducing agent is added to the bleach solution to generate the iodine by the reduction of the hypochlorite ions. The formed iodine is then back-titrated with sodium thiosulphate to reduce iodine to iodide ions while sodium thiosulphate is being oxidized in order to determine the amount of hypochlorite ions originally present. When the brown colour of iodine fades as the end point approaches, a little amount of starch solution is added.

    • Word count: 2064
  6. Fission and Fusion (Open Book paper 2008)

    Fission does not happen spontaneously; it requires a trigger. An unstable nucleus bombarded with a neutron will "elongate and divide itself like a liquid drop" [3] as its surface tension is decreased due to its charge [4]. Reaction 1 - a possible fission reaction of uranium Source [5] 100 words Explain the role of hydrogen nuclei and helium nuclei in the synthesis of elements in stars. Give a detailed explanation of the nuclear changes that happen when lithium forms in stars.

    • Word count: 2230
  7. Determination of the solubility of calcium hydroxide

    The hydrochloric solution will be diluted 10 times to reduce the concentration from 0.3moldm-3 to 0.03moldm-3. This new concentration will therefore be twice the concentration of the calcium hydroxide. Diluting hydrochloric acid 1. Firstly I will ensure the pipette has been washed with distilled water and then washed with hydrochloric acid. This will make sure that all traces of previous solutions have been removed. 2. Then I will fill the pipette with hydrochloric acid using the pipette pump. When the pipette has been filled pass the 25cm-3 line, I will allow the pipette to empty.

    • Word count: 2135
  8. The aim of the courework is to find the unknow concentration of HCl

    Using the + 0.1g balance, weighing approximately between 1.2g and and 1.4g of sodium carbonate into the small beaker. (Do not record the mass) 2. using the + 0.1 balance, weighing the small beaker and its contents accurately, then recording the mass. 3. then transfer the content to the small beaker in to the large beaker. Weigh the small beaker again using the + 0.1 balance so I get a accurate result. 4. Next I add de-ionised water cautiouly down the side of the large beaker. Use about 150cm3 of water, and swirl the beaker to mix the contents. 5.

    • Word count: 2058
  9. Paper chromatography

    The stationary phase is usually a piece of high quality filter paper. The mobile phase is a developing solution that travels up the stationary phase, carrying the samples with it. Components of the sample will separate on the stationary phase according to how strongly they adsorb to the stationary phase versus and how much they dissolve in the mobile phase. The purpose of this experiment is to observe how chromatography can be used to separate mixtures of chemical substances, in this case separate felt tip pen. Chromatography serves mainly as a tool for the examination and separation of mixtures of chemical substances.

    • Word count: 2870
  10. Titration Coursework

    Method 1. To start off, I am going to make my standard solution. I will do this by weighing 2.65 grams of sodium carbonate in a glass bottle on a mass balance. But first, I will weigh the bottle, measure the mass of the bottle and then change the scale to read 0 grams. I will then add 2.65 grams of sodium carbonate into the bottle. 2. I will then wash a 250ml volumetric flask using distilled water. The reason being is so that it removes any other molecules from previous experiments.

    • Word count: 2822
  11. An investigation into the behaviour of mono-di-tri protic acids with a pure metal.

    The rate equation cannot be calculated from the balanced chemical equation, but has to be found through experimental procedures. The overall rate equation takes the form of: Rate (mol dm-� s-1) = K [A]a[B]b[C]c Where: [A], [B], and [C] represent the concentration of the reactant in mol dm-�. The indices 'a', 'b', and 'c' show the order of the reaction with respect to each of the reactants A,B, and C. the sum of all the indices is called the overall order of the reaction. 'K' is a constant of proportionality known as the rate constant, and its units depend on the order of reaction.

    • Word count: 2263
  12. The purpose of this experiment was to prepare a sample of Aspirin and measure its boiling point

    There is a less chance of blocked arteries causing the amount of blood flowing to decrease and thus causing cardiac arrest. (Ling, 1994) Aspirin has been becoming increasingly popular with patients that have experienced a heart attack to avoid any recurrence taking place or tissue death surrounding the cardiac muscle. Aspirin can also be defined as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and Aspirin being one of the first to be classed as one. (Greenlaw, 2005) These are medications with analgesics that reduce fever and have anti-inflammatory effects.

    • Word count: 2257
  13. Percent Yield Experiment. The limiting reagent for this experiment is strontium chloride hexahydrate. The two products will be strontium sulphate as a solid and copper (II) chloride in an aqueous state.

    Repeat step 5 for the beaker containing the 1g of copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate. 7. Using a funnel transfer the aqueous copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate into the beaker containing strontium chloride hexahydrate. 8. Rinse the copper beaker twice with small ammounts of water and pour it down the funnel. 9. Use water to wash the remaining solution from the walls of the funnnel. 10. Stir the solution for a minute to ensure the reaction has fully taken place. 11.

    • Word count: 2468

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