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AS and A Level: Inorganic Chemistry
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Top tips for writing reactions
- 1 Remember to balance the charges on any ionic compounds. The common ions are NO3-, SO42-, OH- and CO32-.
- 2 Do not forget to put state symbols on all of your balanced reactions.
- 3 Each side of the reaction must have the same number of atoms on it. Think about a balanced seesaw.
- 4 Your three main acids that you will use have the formulae HNO3 (nitric acid), H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) and HCl (hydrochloric acid).
- 5 Remember that all metal hydroxides and metal oxides are bases. This will help you when using word equations to figure out your products.
Five common mistakes students make when studying inorganic chemistry
- 1 When observing a gas being produced, you would not write “I saw a gas” as most gases are invisible. Instead you should write “I saw bubbling / fizzing / effervescence”.
- 2 When asked to write a word equation, students often write a symbol equation and vice versa. This will get you no marks in the exam.
- 3 - When asked for “standard conditions” people often say “room temperature”. This is not sufficient. You must say 25 degrees celsius (298K). Other standard conditions you must know are 1 atmosphere of pressure and concentrations of 1 mol dm-.
- 4 If you are asked to state a colour change you must state the initial and final colour.
- 5 Students often give group 2 metals a 1+ charge. Remember that all group two metals (Be, Mg, Ca, St, Ba, Ra) have a 2+ charge.
Five word equations that you must know
- 1 Acid + base / alkali = salt + water (eg HCl + NaOH becomes NaCl + H2O)
- 2 Metal carbonate = metal oxide + carbon dioxide (eg CaCO3 becomes CaO + CO2)
- 3 Metal + oxygen = metal oxide (2Mg + O2 becomes 2MgO)
- 4 Metal + water = metal hydroxide + hydrogen (eg 2Na + 2H2O becomes 2NaOH + H2)
- 5 Metal oxide + water = metal hydroxide (eg CaO + H2O becomes Ca(OH)2)
The body uses salt?s as ?electrolytes? to transfer electrical charge from one area to another. This includes along the conductive tissue found in the heart, initiating a heartbeat or opening pores in a cell membrane allowing molecules in or out of the cell . Salt hydrates are salt molecules surrounded by water molecules. The water molecules are made up of an oxygen molecule bonded to 2 hydrogen molecules. The oxygen molecule has a higher electronegativity and thus the electrons around the molecule are attracted to the oxygen more than the hydrogen. Thus the molecule has a slight negative charge over the oxygen and positive charge over the hydrogen?s.
- Word count: 1721
Percent Yield Experiment. The limiting reagent for this experiment is strontium chloride hexahydrate. The two products will be strontium sulphate as a solid and copper (II) chloride in an aqueous state.
Repeat step 5 for the beaker containing the 1g of copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate. 7. Using a funnel transfer the aqueous copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate into the beaker containing strontium chloride hexahydrate. 8. Rinse the copper beaker twice with small ammounts of water and pour it down the funnel. 9. Use water to wash the remaining solution from the walls of the funnnel. 10. Stir the solution for a minute to ensure the reaction has fully taken place. 11.
- Word count: 2468
The aim of this investigation is to analyse what cations and anions are present in Mummion a preservative for mummies
I will eventually repeat the first 3 steps till I have tested all the metal ion samples. Once I?ve finished these steps I will put my results in a table Results Table Name of chemical tested Metal ion present Flame colour seen Sodium Na+ Orange Potassium K+ Purple Rubidium Rb+ Violet Lithium Li+ Red Barium Ba2+ Light Green Calcium Ca?+ Deep Orange Copper Cu2+ Apple Green Mummion Orange Risk assessment Chemicals/procedure Hazards Risk Safety Precautions Risk level emergency Sodium Chloride low hazards Contact with skin Wash hands after working with substance Low risk level Get medical advice if contact with skin occurs Potassium Bromide Low hazards Contact with eyes Wear goggles to protect your eyes Low risk
- Word count: 1808
However steel reinforcing that is constantly exposed to aggressive corroding chemicals such as seawater (Chlorides) often requires an extra level of protection beyond what the concrete alone can provide. The most common method used to protect against corrosion is an epoxy coating on the steel. Other methods used include switching to Galvanised and stainless steel reinforcement, either Impressed Current or Galvanic cathodic protection systems, and chemical and mineral corrosion protection systems. This report will be investigating two corrosion protection systems, epoxy coating and impressed current cathodic protection, analysing their advantages and disadvantages in order to determine which method is the most effective to protect against corrosion in steel reinforcement in concrete coastal structures.
- Word count: 3006
Around 70Tg(S) per year SO2 is released through human activity, 7-8Tg(S) per year through volcanic emissions and 2.8Tg(S) per year from wildfires. Acid rain formation begins in the gas phase. Sulphur dioxide is oxidised by reacting with a hydroxyl radical as SO2 + OH· → HOSO2· This is followed by HOSO2· + O2 → HO2· + SO3 In the presence of water, sulphur trioxide (SO3) is converted rapidly to sulfuric acid SO3(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(l) Nitric acid is formed by the reaction of OH with nitrogen dioxide NO2 + OH· → HNO3 Acid deposition occurs as both wet and dry deposition.
- Word count: 1343